routine is

Documentation for routine is assembled from the following types:

language documentation Traits

From Traits

(Traits) trait is

Defined as

proto sub trait_mod:<is>(Mu $|{*}

is applies to any kind of scalar object, and can take any number of named or positional arguments. It is the most commonly used trait, and takes the following forms, depending on the type of the first argument.

is applied to classes.

The most common form, involving two classes, one that is being defined and the other existing, defines parenthood. A is B, if both are classes, defines A as a subclass of B.

is DEPRECATED can be applied to classes, Attributes or Routines, marks them as deprecated and issues a message, if provided.

Several instances of is are translated directly into attributes for the class they refer to: rw, nativesize, ctype, unsigned, hidden, array_type.

The Uninstantiable representation trait is not so much related to the representation as related to what can be done with a specific class; it effectively prevents the creation of instances of the class in any possible way.

constant @IMM = <Innie Minnie Moe>;
 
class don't-instantiate is repr('Uninstantiable'{
    my $.counter;
 
    method imm () {
        return @IMM$.counter++ mod @IMM.elems ];
    }
}
say don't-instantiate.imm for ^10;

Uninstantiable classes can still be used via their class variables and methods, as above. However, trying to instantiate them this way: my $do-instantiate = don't-instantiate.new; will yield the error You cannot create an instance of this type (don't-instantiate).

is repr and native representations.

Since the is trait refers, in general, to the nature of the class or object they are applied to, they are used extensively in native calls to specify the representation of the data structures that are going to be handled by the native functions via the is repr suffix; at the same time, is native is used for the routines that are actually implemented via native functions. These are the representations that can be used:

On the other hand, P6opaque is the default representation used for all objects in Perl 6.

class Thar {};
say Thar.REPR;    #OUTPUT: «P6opaque␤»

The meta object protocol uses it by default for every object and class unless specified otherwise; for that reason, it is in general not necessary unless you are effectively working with that interface.

is on routines

The is trait can be used on the definition of methods and routines to establish precedence and associativity. They act as a sub defined using trait_mod which take as argument the types and names of the traits that are going to be added. In the case of subroutines, traits would be a way of adding functionality which cuts across class and role hierarchies, or can even be used to add behaviors to independently defined routines.

module Test

From Test

(Test) sub is

Defined as

multi sub is(Mu $gotMu:U $expected$desc = '')
multi sub is(Mu $gotMu:D $expected$desc = '')

Marks a test as passed if $value and $expected compare positively with the eq operator, unless $expected is a type object, in which case === operator will be used instead; accepts an optional description of the test as the last argument.

NOTE: eq operator the is() uses stringifies, which means is() is not a good function for testing more complex things, such as lists: is (1, (2, (3,))), [1, 2, 3] passes the test, even though the operands are vastly different. For those cases, use is-deeply routine

    my $pdf-documentsub factorial($x{ ... }...;
    is $pdf-document.author"Joe"'Retrieving the author field';
    is factorial(6),         720,   'Factorial - small integer';
    my Int $a;
    is $aInt'The variable $a is an unassigned Int';

Note: if only whitespace differs between the values, is() will output failure message differently, to show the whitespace in each values. For example, in the output below, the second test shows the literal \t in the got: line:

is "foo\tbar""foo\tbaz";   # expected: 'foo     baz'␤#      got: 'foo   bar' 
is "foo\tbar""foo    bar"# expected: "foo    bar"␤#      got: "foo\tbar"