# class IO::Path::QNX

IO::Path pre-loaded with IO::Spec::QNX

## method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## (IO::Path) method dirname

Defined as:

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name. Unless the dirname consist of only the directory separator (i.e. it's the top directory), the trailing directory separator will not be included in the return value.

## (IO::Path) method volume

Defined as:

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

## (IO::Path) method parts

Defined as:

Returns a Map with the keys volume, dirname, basename whose values are the same as available via methods .volume, .dirname, and .basename respectively.

## (IO::Path) method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## (IO::Path) method succ

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.succ on it.

## (IO::Path) method open

Defined as:

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

## (IO::Path) method pred

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.pred on it.

## (IO::Path) method watch

Defined as:

Equivalent to calling IO::Notification.watch-path with the invocant as the argument.

## (IO::Path) method is-absolute

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

Note that on Windows a path that starts with a slash or backslash is still considered absolute even if no volume was given, as it is absolute for that particular volume:

## (IO::Path) method is-relative

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise. Windows caveats for .is-absolute apply.

Defined as:

Returns a new Str object that is an absolute path. If the invocant is not already an absolute path, it is first made absolute using $base as base, if it is provided, or the .CWD attribute the object was created with if it is not. ## (IO::Path) method relative Defined as: Returns a new Str object with the path relative to the $base. If $base is not provided, $*CWD is used in its place. If the invocant is not an absolute path, it's first made to be absolute using the .CWD attribute the object was created with, and then is made relative to $base. ## (IO::Path) method parent Defined as: Returns the parent path of the invocant. Note that no actual filesystem access is made, so the returned parent is physical and not the logical parent of symlinked directories. If $level is specified, the call is equivalent to calling .parent() $level times: ## (IO::Path) method resolve Defined as: Returns a new IO::Path object with all symbolic links and references to the parent directory (..) resolved. This means that the filesystem is examined for each directory in the path, and any symlinks found are followed. If :$completely, which defaults to False, is set to a true value, the method will fail with X::IO::Resolve if it cannot completely resolve the path, otherwise, it will resolve as much as possible, and will merely perform cleanup of the rest of the path. The last part of the path does NOT have to exist to :$completely resolve the path. NOTE: Currently (April 2017) this method doesn't work correctly on all platforms, e.g. Windows, since it assumes POSIX semantics. ## (IO::Path) routine dir Defined as: Returns the contents of a directory as a lazy list of IO::Path objects representing relative paths, filtered by smartmatching their names (as strings) against the :test parameter. Since the tests are performed against Str arguments, not IO, the tests are executed in the $*CWD, instead of the target directory. When testing against file test operators, this won't work:

while this will:

NOTE: a dir call opens a directory for reading, which counts towards maximum per-process open files for your program. Be sure to exhaust returned Seq before doing something like recursively performing more dir calls. You can exhaust it by assigning to a @-sigiled variable or simply looping over it. Note how examples below push further dirs to look through into an Array, rather than immediately calling dir on them. See also IO::Dir module that gives you finer control over closing dir handles.

Examples:

An example program that lists all files and directories recursively:

A lazy way to find the first three files ending in ".p6" recursively starting from the current directory:

## (IO::Path) method e

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists.

## (IO::Path) method d

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a directory. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method f

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a file. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method s

Defined as:

Returns the file size in bytes. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported size is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method l

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a symlink. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method r

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is accessible. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method w

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method rw

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is readable and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method x

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method rwx

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable, readable, and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method z

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and has size of 0. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported file size (and thus the result of this method) is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

## (IO::Path) method sibling

Defined as:

Allows to reference a sibling file or directory. Returns a new IO::Path based on the invocant, with the .basename changed to $sibling. The $sibling is allowed to be a multi-part path fragment; see also .add.

## (IO::Path) method words

Defined as:

Opens the invocant and returns its words.

The behavior is equivalent to opening the file specified by the invocant, forwarding the :$chomp, :$enc, and :$nl-in arguments to IO::Handle.open, then calling IO::Handle.words on that handle, forwarding any of the remaining arguments to that method, and returning the resultant Seq. NOTE: words are lazily read. The handle used under the hood is not closed until the returned Seq is fully reified, and this could lead to leaking open filehandles. It is possible to avoid leaking open filehandles using the $limit argument to cut down the Seq of words to be generated.

## (IO::Path) method lines

Defined as:

Opens the invocant and returns its lines.

The behavior is equivalent to opening the file specified by the invocant, forwarding the :$chomp, :$enc, and :$nl-in arguments to IO::Handle.open, then calling IO::Handle.lines on that handle, forwarding any of the remaining arguments to that method, and returning the resultant Seq. NOTE: the lines are ready lazily and the handle used under the hood won't get closed until the returned Seq is fully reified, so ensure it is, or you'll be leaking open filehandles. (TIP: use the $limit argument)

Defined as:

Read all of the file's content and return it as either Buf, if :$bin is True, or if not, as Str decoded with :$enc encoding, which defaults to utf8. File will be closed afterwards. See &open for valid values for :$enc. ## (IO::Path) method spurt Defined as: Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. File will be closed, afterwards. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows: • :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob.

• :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file. • :$createonlyfail if the file already exists.

• ## (IO::Path) method chdir

Defined as:

DEPRECATION NOTICE: this method will be deprecated in 6.d language and removed in 6.e. Do not use it for new code. Instead, create a new path or use add method. For altering current working directory see &chdir and &*chdir subroutines.

## (IO::Path) routine rmdir

Defined as:

Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories.

Method form returns True on success and throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted.

To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module.

Defined as:

Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod. The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number: Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number): ## (IO::Path) routine rename Defined as: Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason. Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move. ## (IO::Path) routine copy Defined as: Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file. ## (IO::Path) routine move Defined as: Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file. To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not. ## (IO::Path) method Numeric Defined as: Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical. ## (IO::Path) method Int Defined as: Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical. Defined as: Create a new symbolic link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Symlink if the symbolic link could not be created. If $target does not exist, creates a dangling symbolic link. To create a hard link, see link.

Note: on Windows, creation of symbolic links may require escalated privileges.

Defined as:

Create a new hard link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Link if the hard link could not be created. To create a symbolic link, see symlink.

Defined as:

Delete all specified ordinary files, links, or symbolic links for which there are privileges to do so. See rmdir to delete directories.

The subroutine form returns the names of all the files in the list, excluding those for which the filesystem raised some error; since trying to delete a file that does not exist does not raise any error at that level, this list will include the names of the files in the list that do not exist.

The method form returns True on success, or fails with X::IO::Unlink if the operation could not be completed. If the file to be deleted does not exist, the routine treats it as success.

## (IO::Path) method IO

Defined as:

Returns the invocant.

## (IO::Path) method SPEC

Defined as:

Returns the IO::Spec object that was (implicitly) specified at object creation time.

## (IO::Path) method modified

Returns an Instant object indicating when the content of the file was last modified. Compare with changed.

## (IO::Path) method accessed

Return an Instant object representing the timestamp when the file was last accessed. Note: depending on how the filesystem was mounted, the last accessed time may not update on each access to the file, but only on the first access after modifications.

## (IO::Path) method changed

Returns an Instant object indicating the metadata of the file or directory was last changed (e.g. permissions, or files created/deleted in directory). Compare with modified.

## (IO::Path) method mode

Return an IntStr object representing the POSIX permissions of a file. The Str part of the result is the octal representation of the file permission, like the form accepted by the chmod(1) utility.

The result of this can be used in the other methods that take a mode as an argument.

# Routines supplied by class Cool

IO::Path::QNX inherits from class Cool, which provides the following routines:

## (Cool) routine abs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric and returns the absolute value (that is, a non-negative number).

## (Cool) method conj

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns the complex conjugate (that is, the number with the sign of the imaginary part negated).

## (Cool) routine sqrt

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric (or in the sub form, the argument) and returns the square root, that is, a non-negative number that, when multiplied with itself, produces the original number.

## (Cool) method sign

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns its sign, that is, 0 if the number is 0, 1 for positive and -1 for negative values.

## (Cool) method rand

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Num and returns a pseudo-random value between zero and the number.

## (Cool) routine sin

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its sine.

Note that Perl 6 is no computer algebra system, so sin(pi) typically does not produce an exact 0, but rather a very small floating-point number.

## (Cool) routine asin

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-sine in radians.

## (Cool) routine cos

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosine.

## (Cool) routine acos

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosine in radians.

## (Cool) routine tan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its tangent.

## (Cool) routine atan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-tangent in radians.

## (Cool) routine atan2

Defined as:

Coerces self and argument to Numeric, using them to compute the two-argument arc-tangent in radians.

The first argument defaults to 1, so in the first case the function will return the angle θ in radians between a vector that goes from origin to the point (3, 1) and the x axis.

## (Cool) routine sec

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its secant, that is, the reciprocal of its cosine.

## (Cool) routine asec

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-secant in radians.

## (Cool) routine cosec

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosecant, that is, the reciprocal of its sine.

## (Cool) routine acosec

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosecant in radians.

## (Cool) routine cotan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cotangent, that is, the reciprocal of its tangent.

## (Cool) routine acotan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cotangent in radians.

## (Cool) routine sinh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in method form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Sine hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine asinh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Sine hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine cosh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Cosine hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine acosh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Cosine hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine tanh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians and returns its Tangent hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine atanh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse tangent hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine sech

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Secant hyperbolicus.

## (Cool) routine asech

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic secant.

## (Cool) routine cosech

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cosecant.

## (Cool) routine acosech

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cosecant.

## (Cool) routine cotanh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cotangent.

## (Cool) routine acotanh

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cotangent.

## (Cool) routine cis

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns cos(argument) + i*sin(argument).

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine ceiling

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine truncate

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

## (Cool) routine ord

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

The inverse operation is chr.

Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

## (Cool) method path

Defined as:

DEPRECATED. It's been deprecated as of the 6.d version. Will be removed in the next ones.

Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead.

## (Cool) routine chr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

The inverse operation is ord.

Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

## (Cool) routine chars

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

If the string is native, the number of chars will be also returned as a native int.

Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”.

Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner).

You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave:

You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Perl 6 tightly follows, using a method called NFG, normal form graphemes for efficiently representing them.

## (Cool) routine codes

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

The same result will be obtained with

ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed.

## (Cool) routine flip

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

## (Cool) routine trim

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-leading

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-trailing

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine lc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

## (Cool) routine uc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

## (Cool) routine fc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

## (Cool) routine tc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

## (Cool) routine tclc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case.

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and filters each word that smartmatches against $where through the &filter. With the default filter (first character to upper case, rest to lower) and matcher (which accepts everything), this title-cases each word: With a matcher: With a customer filter too: ## (Cool) routine samecase Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a copy of $string with case information for each individual character changed according to $pattern. Note: The pattern string can contain three types of characters, i.e. uppercase, lowercase and caseless. For a given character in $pattern its case information determines the case of the corresponding character in the result.

If $string is longer than $pattern, the case information from the last character of $pattern is applied to the remaining characters of $string.

## (Cool) routine uniprop

Defined as:

Returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. A uniprops routine can be used to get the property for every character in a string.

## (Cool) sub uniprops

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop, but for each character in the passed string.

## (Cool) routine uniname

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant or first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) routine uninames

Defined as:

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

See uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) routine unimatch

Defined as:

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

## (Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

## (Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

## (Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments.

## (Cool) routine substr-rw

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr-rw with the arguments.

## (Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option.

## (Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

## (Cool) routine split

Defined as:

[1]

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

The second statement exemplifies the first form of comb, with a Regex that excludes multiples of ten, and a Range (which is Cool) as $input. comb stringifies the Range before applying .comb on the resulting string. Check Str.comb for its effect on different kind of input strings. When the first argument is an integer, it indicates the (maximum) size of the chunks the input is going to be divided in In this case the input is a list, which after transformation to Str (which includes the spaces) is divided in chunks of size 3. ## (Cool) method contains Defined as: Coerces the invocant Str, and calls Str.contains on it. Please refer to that version of the method for arguments and general syntax. Since Int is a subclass of Cool, 123 is coerced to a Str and then contains is called on it. Seqs are also subclasses of Cool, and they are stringified to a comma-separated form. In this case we are also using an Int, which is going to be stringified also; "233" is included in that sequence, so it returns True. Please note that this sequence is not lazy; the stringification of lazy sequences does not include each and every one of their components for obvious reasons. ## (Cool) routine index Defined as: Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to a Str, and searches for $needle in the string $s starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found. See the documentation in type Str for examples. ## (Cool) routine rindex Defined as: Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

## (Cool) method match

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it.

## (Cool) routine roots

Defined as:

Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

For example

## (Cool) method match

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.match.

## (Cool) method subst

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.subst.

## (Cool) method trans

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls Str.trans

## (Cool) method IO

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

Defined as:

Defined as:

Returns a Complex with the coordinates corresponding to the angle in radians and magnitude corresponding to the object value or $mag in the case it's being used as a sub ## (Cool) routine printf Defined as: As a method, takes the object as a format using the same language as Str.sprintf; as a sub, its first argument will be the format string, and the rest of the arguments will be substituted in the format following the format conventions. ## (Cool) routine sprintf Defined as: Formats and outputs a string, following the same language as Str.sprintf, using as such format either the object (if called in method form) or the first argument (if called as a routine) This function is mostly identical to the C library's sprintf and printf functions. The only difference between the two functions is that sprintf returns a string while the printf function writes to a filehandle. sprintf returns a Str, not a literal. The $format is scanned for % characters. Any % introduces a format token. Directives guide the use (if any) of the arguments. When a directive other than % is used, it indicates how the next argument passed is to be formatted into the string to be created.

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The directives are:

 % a literal percent sign c a character with the given codepoint s a string d a signed integer, in decimal u an unsigned integer, in decimal o an unsigned integer, in octal x an unsigned integer, in hexadecimal e a floating-point number, in scientific notation f a floating-point number, in fixed decimal notation g a floating-point number, in %e or %f notation X like x, but using uppercase letters E like e, but using an uppercase "E" G like g, but with an uppercase "E" (if applicable) b an unsigned integer, in binary

Compatibility:

 i a synonym for %d D a synonym for %ld U a synonym for %lu O a synonym for %lo F a synonym for %f

Modifiers change the meaning of format directives, but are largely no-ops (the semantics are still being determined).

 h interpret integer as native "short" (typically int16) NYI l interpret integer as native "long" (typically int32 or int64) NYI ll interpret integer as native "long long" (typically int64) NYI L interpret integer as native "long long" (typically uint64) NYI q interpret integer as native "quads" (typically int64 or larger)

Between the % and the format letter, you may specify several additional attributes controlling the interpretation of the format. In order, these are:

Arguments are usually formatted to be only as wide as required to display the given value. You can override the width by putting a number here, or get the width from the next argument (with * ) or from a specified argument (e.g., with *2$): If a field width obtained through * is negative, it has the same effect as the - flag: left-justification. ### Precision, or maximum width You can specify a precision (for numeric conversions) or a maximum width (for string conversions) by specifying a . followed by a number. For floating-point formats, except g and G, this specifies how many places right of the decimal point to show (the default being 6). For example: For "g" and "G", this specifies the maximum number of digits to show, including those prior to the decimal point and those after it; for example: For integer conversions, specifying a precision implies that the output of the number itself should be zero-padded to this width, where the 0 flag is ignored: (Note that this feature currently works for unsigned integer conversions, but not for signed integer.) For string conversions, specifying a precision truncates the string to fit the specified width: You can also get the precision from the next argument using .*, or from a specified argument (e.g., with .*2$):

If a precision obtained through * is negative, it counts as having no precision at all:

### Size

For numeric conversions, you can specify the size to interpret the number as using l, h, V, q, L, or ll. For integer conversions (d u o x X b i D U O), numbers are usually assumed to be whatever the default integer size is on your platform (usually 32 or 64 bits), but you can override this to use instead one of the standard C types, as supported by the compiler used to build Perl 6:

(Note: None of the following have been implemented.)

 hh interpret integer as C type "char" or "unsigned char" h interpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short" j interpret integer as C type "intmax_t", only with a C99 compiler (unportable) l interpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long" q, L, or ll interpret integer as C type "long long", "unsigned long long", or "quad" (typically 64-bit integers) t interpret integer as C type "ptrdiff_t" z interpret integer as C type "size_t"

### Order of arguments

Normally, sprintf takes the next unused argument as the value to format for each format specification. If the format specification uses * to require additional arguments, these are consumed from the argument list in the order they appear in the format specification before the value to format. Where an argument is specified by an explicit index, this does not affect the normal order for the arguments, even when the explicitly specified index would have been the next argument.

So:

uses $a for the width, $b for the precision, and $c as the value to format; while: would use $a for the width and precision and $b as the value to format. Here are some more examples; be aware that when using an explicit index, the $ may need escaping:

Other examples:

Special case: sprintf("<b>%s</b>\n", "Perl 6") will not work, but one of the following will: