trait is pure
Documentation for trait is pure, assembled from the following types:
multi sub trait_mod:<is>(Routine , :!)
Marks a subroutine as pure, that is, it asserts that for the same input, it will always produce the same output without any additional side effects.
You can mark function as pure even if they throw exceptions in edge cases, or if they modify temporary objects; hence the
is pure trait can cover cases that the compiler cannot deduce on its own. On the other hand, you might not want to constant-fold functions that produce a large return value (such as the string or list repetition operators, infix
xx) even if they are pure, to avoid large precompilation files.
is pure trait is a promise by the programmer to the compiler that it can constant-fold calls to such functions when the arguments are known at compile time.
sub double(Numeric ) is pure
To see it an action with a particular compiler you can try this example:
sub double-pure() is puresub double-dirty()BEGINsay ‘Start’;say double-pure(40) + double-pure(40) for ^2;say ‘Middle’;say double-dirty(5) + double-dirty(5) for ^2;say ‘End’# Example output:# Begin# pure# pure# Start# 160# 160# Middle# dirty# dirty# 20# dirty# dirty# 20# End
Essentially this allows the compiler to perform some operations at compile time. The benefits of constant-folding may include better performance, especially in cases when the folded code is precompiled.
In addition, using a pure function or operator in sink context (that is, where the result is discarded) may lead to a warning. The code
sub double() is pure ;double(21);say "anything";# WARNING: «Useless use of "double(21)" in expression "double(21)" in sink context (line 2)»