# class IO::Path

File or directory path

IO::Path is the workhorse of IO operations.

Conceptually, an IO::Path object consists of a volume, a directory, and a basename. It supports both purely textual operations, and operations that access the filesystem, e.g. to resolve a path, or to read all content of a file.

## method dirname

Defined as:

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name. Unless the dirname consist of only the directory separator (i.e. it's the top directory), the trailing directory separator will not be included in the return value.

## method volume

Defined as:

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

## method parts

Defined as:

Returns a Map with the keys volume, dirname, basename whose values are the same as available via methods .volume, .dirname, and .basename respectively.

## method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## method succ

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.succ on it.

## method open

Defined as:

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

## method pred

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.pred on it.

## method watch

Defined as:

Equivalent to calling IO::Notification.watch-path with the invocant as the argument.

## method is-absolute

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

Note that on Windows a path that starts with a slash or backslash is still considered absolute even if no volume was given, as it is absolute for that particular volume:

## method is-relative

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise. Windows caveats for .is-absolute apply.

Defined as:

Returns a new Str object that is an absolute path. If the invocant is not already an absolute path, it is first made absolute using $base as base, if it is provided, or the .CWD attribute the object was created with if it is not. ## method relative Defined as: Returns a new Str object with the path relative to the $base. If $base is not provided, $*CWD is used in its place. If the invocant is not an absolute path, it's first made to be absolute using the .CWD attribute the object was created with, and then is made relative to $base. ## method parent Defined as: Returns the parent path of the invocant. Note that no actual filesystem access is made, so the returned parent is physical and not the logical parent of symlinked directories. If $level is specified, the call is equivalent to calling .parent() $level times: ## method resolve Defined as: Returns a new IO::Path object with all symbolic links and references to the parent directory (..) resolved. This means that the filesystem is examined for each directory in the path, and any symlinks found are followed. If :$completely, which defaults to False, is set to a true value, the method will fail with X::IO::Resolve if it cannot completely resolve the path, otherwise, it will resolve as much as possible, and will merely perform cleanup of the rest of the path. The last part of the path does NOT have to exist to :$completely resolve the path. NOTE: Currently (April 2017) this method doesn't work correctly on all platforms, e.g. Windows, since it assumes POSIX semantics. ## routine dir Defined as: Returns the contents of a directory as a lazy list of IO::Path objects representing relative paths, filtered by smartmatching their names (as strings) against the :test parameter. Since the tests are performed against Str arguments, not IO, the tests are executed in the $*CWD, instead of the target directory. When testing against file test operators, this won't work:

while this will:

NOTE: a dir call opens a directory for reading, which counts towards maximum per-process open files for your program. Be sure to exhaust returned Seq before doing something like recursively performing more dir calls. You can exhaust it by assigning to a @-sigiled variable or simply looping over it. Note how examples below push further dirs to look through into an Array, rather than immediately calling dir on them. See also IO::Dir module that gives you finer control over closing dir handles.

Examples:

An example program that lists all files and directories recursively:

A lazy way to find the first three files ending in ".p6" recursively starting from the current directory:

## File test operators

For most file tests, you can do a smartmatch ~~ or you can call a method. You don't need to actually open a filehandle in the traditional way (although you can) to do a filetest. You can simply append .IO to the filename. For instance, here is how to check whether a file is readable using smartmatch:

File tests include:

Smartmatching on Pairs can be used to perform multiple tests at once:

All of the above tests can be used as methods (without the colon), though method tests may throw X::IO::DoesNotExist as documented below. Three tests only exist as methods: accessed, changed and modified.

## method spurt

Defined as:

Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. File will be closed, afterwards. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows:

• :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob. • :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file.

## sub mkdir

Defined as:

Creates a new directory, including its parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option). That is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories as well if they do not exist.

Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

See also mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. ## routine rmdir Defined as: Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories. Method form returns True on success and throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted. To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module. ## method chmod Defined as: Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod.

The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number:

Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number):

## routine rename

Defined as:

Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move.

## routine copy

Defined as:

Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

## routine move

Defined as:

Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not.

## method Numeric

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

## method Int

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

## (Cool) routine exp

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

## (Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

## (Cool) routine round

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

Pay attention to types when using this method, as ending up with the wrong type may affect the precision you seek to achieve. For Real types, the type of the result is the type of the argument (Complex argument gets coerced to Real, ending up a Num). If rounding a Complex, the result is Complex as well, regardless of the type of the argument.

## (Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

Defined as:

Uses $format to return a formatted representation of the invocant; equivalent to calling sprintf with $format as format and the invocant as the second argument. The $format will be coerced to Stringy and defaults to '%s'. For more information about formats strings, see sprintf. ## (Cool) routine ceiling Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer. ## (Cool) routine truncate Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero. ## (Cool) routine ord Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point. The inverse operation is chr. Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number ## (Cool) method path Defined as: DEPRECATED. It's been deprecated as of the 6.d version. Will be removed in the next ones. Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead. ## (Cool) routine chr Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point. The inverse operation is ord. Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character. ## (Cool) routine chars Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes. If the string is native, the number of chars will be also returned as a native int. Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”. Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner). You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave: You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Perl 6 tightly follows, using a method called NFG, normal form graphemes for efficiently representing them. ## (Cool) routine codes Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points. The same result will be obtained with ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed. ## (Cool) routine flip Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version. ## (Cool) routine trim Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped. ## (Cool) routine trim-leading Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped. ## (Cool) routine trim-trailing Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped. ## (Cool) routine lc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case. ## (Cool) routine uc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters). ## (Cool) routine fc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.) ## (Cool) routine tc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case). ## (Cool) routine tclc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case. ## (Cool) routine wordcase Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and filters each word that smartmatches against $where through the &filter. With the default filter (first character to upper case, rest to lower) and matcher (which accepts everything), this title-cases each word:

With a matcher:

With a customer filter too:

## (Cool) routine samecase

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a copy of $string with case information for each individual character changed according to $pattern.

Note: The pattern string can contain three types of characters, i.e. uppercase, lowercase and caseless. For a given character in $pattern its case information determines the case of the corresponding character in the result. If $string is longer than $pattern, the case information from the last character of $pattern is applied to the remaining characters of $string. ## (Cool) routine uniprop Defined as: Returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. A uniprops routine can be used to get the property for every character in a string. ## (Cool) sub uniprops Defined as: Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop, but for each character in the passed string. ## (Cool) routine uniname Defined as: Interprets the invocant or first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction. ## (Cool) routine uninames Defined as: Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided. Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character. See uniparse for the opposite direction. ## (Cool) routine unimatch Defined as: Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value. ## (Cool) routine chop Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed. ## (Cool) routine chomp Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline. ## (Cool) routine substr Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments. ## (Cool) routine substr-rw Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr-rw with the arguments. ## (Cool) routine ords Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character. This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option. ## (Cool) routine chrs Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters. This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords. ## (Cool) routine split Defined as: [1] Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string. If $delimiter is a string, it is searched for literally and not treated as a regex. You can also provide multiple delimiters by specifying them as a list; mixing Cool and Regex objects is OK.

By default, split omits the matches, and returns a list of only those parts of the string that did not match. Specifying one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs changes that. Think of the matches as a list that is interleaved with the non-matching parts.

The :v interleaves the values of that list, which will be either Match objects, if a Regex was used as a matcher in the split, or Str objects, if a Cool was used as matcher. If multiple delimiters are specified, Match objects will be generated for all of them, unless all of the delimiters are Cool.

:k interleaves the keys, that is, the indexes:

:kv adds both indexes and matches:

and :p adds them as Pairs, using the same types for values as :v does:

You can only use one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs in a single call to split.

Note that empty chunks are not removed from the result list. For that behavior, use the :skip-empty named argument:

## (Cool) routine lines

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (and in sub form, the argument) to Str, decomposes it into lines (with the newline characters stripped), and returns the list of lines.

This method can be used as part of an IO::Path to process a file line-by-line, since IO::Path objects inherit from Cool, e.g.:

Without any arguments, sub lines operates on $*ARGFILES, which defaults to $*IN in the absence of any filenames.

To modify values in place use is copy to force a writable container.

## (Cool) method words

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or first argument, if it is called as a subroutine) to Str, and returns a list of words that make up the string. Check Str.words for additional arguments and its meaning.

Cool is the base class for many other classes, and some of them, like Match, can be converted to a string. This is what happens in this case:

The example above illustrates two of the ways words can be invoked, with the first argument turned into invocant by its signature. Of course, Inf is the default value of the second argument, so in both cases (and forms) it can be simply omitted.

Only whitespace (including no-break space) counts as word boundaries

In this case, Perl 6 includes an (visible only in the source) no-break space; words still splits the (resulting) Str on it, even if the original array only had 4 elements:

Please see Str.words for more examples and ways to invoke it.

## (Cool) routine comb

Defined as:

Returns a Seq of all (or if supplied, at most $limit) matches of the invocant (method form) or the second argument (sub form) against the Regex, string or defined number. The second statement exemplifies the first form of comb, with a Regex that excludes multiples of ten, and a Range (which is Cool) as $input. comb stringifies the Range before applying .comb on the resulting string. Check Str.comb for its effect on different kind of input strings. When the first argument is an integer, it indicates the (maximum) size of the chunks the input is going to be divided in

In this case the input is a list, which after transformation to Str (which includes the spaces) is divided in chunks of size 3.

## (Cool) method contains

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant Str, and calls Str.contains on it. Please refer to that version of the method for arguments and general syntax.

Since Int is a subclass of Cool, 123 is coerced to a Str and then contains is called on it.

Seqs are also subclasses of Cool, and they are stringified to a comma-separated form. In this case we are also using an Int, which is going to be stringified also; "233" is included in that sequence, so it returns True. Please note that this sequence is not lazy; the stringification of lazy sequences does not include each and every one of their components for obvious reasons.

## (Cool) routine index

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to a Str, and searches for $needle in the string $s starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found. See the documentation in type Str for examples. ## (Cool) method match Defined as: Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it. ## (Cool) routine roots Defined as: Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number. For example ## (Cool) method match Defined as: Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.match. ## (Cool) method subst Defined as: Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.subst. ## (Cool) method trans Defined as: Coerces the invocant to Str and calls Str.trans ## (Cool) method IO Defined as: Coerces the invocant to IO::Path. ## (Cool) routine EVAL Defined as: If it is invoked as a method, it calls the subroutine form with invocant as the first argument, $code, passing along named args, if any; this coerces Cool $code to Str. If $code is a Blob, it'll be processed using the same encoding as the $lang compiler would: for perl6 $lang, uses utf-8; for Perl5, processes using the same rules as perl.

This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

In case the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma is not activated, the compiler will complain with a EVAL is a very dangerous function!!! exception. And it is essentially right, since that will run arbitrary code with the same permissions as the program. You should take care of cleaning the code that is going to pass through EVAL if you activate the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma.

Please note that you can interpolate to create routine names using quotation, as can be seen in this example or other ways to interpolate to create identifier names. This only works, however, for already declared functions and other objects and is thus safer to use.

Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

And also in the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

You need to have Inline::Perl5 for this to work correctly.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine printf

Defined as:

As a method, takes the object as a format using the same language as Str.sprintf; as a sub, its first argument will be the format string, and the rest of the arguments will be substituted in the format following the format conventions.

## (Cool) routine sprintf

Defined as:

Formats and outputs a string, following the same language as Str.sprintf, using as such format either the object (if called in method form) or the first argument (if called as a routine)

This function is mostly identical to the C library's sprintf and printf functions. The only difference between the two functions is that sprintf returns a string while the printf function writes to a filehandle. sprintf returns a Str, not a literal.

### Flags

One or more of:

 space prefix non-negative number with a space + prefix non-negative number with a plus sign - left-justify within the field 0 use leading zeros, not spaces, for required padding # ensure the leading "0" for any octal, prefix non-zero hexadecimal with "0x" or "0X", prefix non-zero binary with "0b" or "0B"

For example:

When a space and a plus sign are given as the flags at once, the space is ignored:

When the # flag and a precision are given in the %o conversion, the necessary number of 0s is added at the beginning. If the value of the number is 0 and the precision is 0, it will output nothing; precision 0 or smaller than the actual number of elements will return the number with 0 to the left:

### Vector flag

This flag tells Perl 6 to interpret the supplied string as a vector of integers, one for each character in the string. Perl 6 applies the format to each integer in turn, then joins the resulting strings with a separator (a dot, '.', by default). This can be useful for displaying ordinal values of characters in arbitrary strings:

You can also explicitly specify the argument number to use for the join string using something like *2$v; for example: ### (Minimum) Width Arguments are usually formatted to be only as wide as required to display the given value. You can override the width by putting a number here, or get the width from the next argument (with * ) or from a specified argument (e.g., with *2$):

If a field width obtained through * is negative, it has the same effect as the - flag: left-justification.

### Precision, or maximum width

You can specify a precision (for numeric conversions) or a maximum width (for string conversions) by specifying a . followed by a number. For floating-point formats, except g and G, this specifies how many places right of the decimal point to show (the default being 6). For example:

For "g" and "G", this specifies the maximum number of digits to show, including those prior to the decimal point and those after it; for example:

For integer conversions, specifying a precision implies that the output of the number itself should be zero-padded to this width, where the 0 flag is ignored:

(Note that this feature currently works for unsigned integer conversions, but not for signed integer.)

For string conversions, specifying a precision truncates the string to fit the specified width:

You can also get the precision from the next argument using .*, or from a specified argument (e.g., with .*2$): If a precision obtained through * is negative, it counts as having no precision at all: ### Size For numeric conversions, you can specify the size to interpret the number as using l, h, V, q, L, or ll. For integer conversions (d u o x X b i D U O), numbers are usually assumed to be whatever the default integer size is on your platform (usually 32 or 64 bits), but you can override this to use instead one of the standard C types, as supported by the compiler used to build Perl 6: (Note: None of the following have been implemented.)  hh interpret integer as C type "char" or "unsigned char" h interpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short" j interpret integer as C type "intmax_t", only with a C99 compiler (unportable) l interpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long" q, L, or ll interpret integer as C type "long long", "unsigned long long", or "quad" (typically 64-bit integers) t interpret integer as C type "ptrdiff_t" z interpret integer as C type "size_t" ### Order of arguments Normally, sprintf takes the next unused argument as the value to format for each format specification. If the format specification uses * to require additional arguments, these are consumed from the argument list in the order they appear in the format specification before the value to format. Where an argument is specified by an explicit index, this does not affect the normal order for the arguments, even when the explicitly specified index would have been the next argument. So: uses $a for the width, $b for the precision, and $c as the value to format; while:

would use $a for the width and precision and $b as the value to format.

Here are some more examples; be aware that when using an explicit index, the \$ may need escaping:

Other examples:

Special case: sprintf("<b>%s</b>\n", "Perl 6") will not work, but one of the following will: