# class IO::Path

File or directory path

IO::Path is the workhorse of IO operations.

Conceptually, an IO::Path object consists of a volume, a directory, and a basename. It supports both purely textual operations, and operations that access the filesystem, e.g. to resolve a path, or to read all content of a file.

## method dirname

Defined as:

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name. Unless the dirname consist of only the directory separator (i.e. it's the top directory), the trailing directory separator will not be included in the return value.

## method volume

Defined as:

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

## method parts

Defined as:

Returns a Map with the keys volume, dirname, basename whose values are the same as available via methods .volume, .dirname, and .basename respectively.

## method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## method succ

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.succ on it.

## method open

Defined as:

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

## method pred

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.pred on it.

## method watch

Defined as:

Equivalent to calling IO::Notification.watch-path with the invocant as the argument.

## method is-absolute

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

Note that on Windows a path that starts with a slash or backslash is still considered absolute even if no volume was given, as it is absolute for that particular volume:

## method is-relative

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise. Windows caveats for .is-absolute apply.

Defined as:

Returns a new Str object that is an absolute path. If the invocant is not already an absolute path, it is first made absolute using $base as base, if it is provided, or the .CWD attribute the object was created with if it is not. ## method relative Defined as: Returns a new Str object with the path relative to the $base. If $base is not provided, $*CWD is used in its place. If the invocant is not an absolute path, it's first made to be absolute using the .CWD attribute the object was created with, and then is made relative to $base. ## method parent Defined as: Returns the parent path of the invocant. Note that no filesystem access is made, so the returned parent is physical and not the logical parent of symlinked directories. If $level is specified, the call is equivalent to calling .parent() $level times: ## method resolve Defined as: Returns a new IO::Path object with all symbolic links and references to the parent directory (..) resolved. This means that the filesystem is examined for each directory in the path, and any symlinks found are followed. If :$completely, which defaults to False, is set to a true value, the method will fail with X::IO::Resolve if it cannot completely resolve the path, otherwise, it will resolve as much as possible, and will merely perform cleanup of the rest of the path. The last part of the path does NOT have to exist to :$completely resolve the path. NOTE: Currently (April 2017) this method doesn't work correctly on all platforms, e.g. Windows, since it assumes POSIX semantics. ## routine dir Defined as: Returns the contents of a directory as a lazy list of IO::Path objects representing relative paths, filtered by smartmatching their names (as strings) against the :test parameter. NOTE: a dir call opens a directory for reading, which counts towards maximum per-process open files for your program. Be sure to exhaust returned Seq before doing something like recursively performing more dir calls. You can exhaust it by assigning to a @-sigiled variable or simply looping over it. Note how examples below push further dirs to look through into an Array, rather than immediately calling dir on them. See also IO::Dir module that gives you finer control over closing dir handles. Examples: An example program that lists all files and directories recursively: A lazy way to find the first three files ending in ".p6" recursively starting from the current directory: ## File test operators For most file tests, you can do a smartmatch ~~ or you can call a method. You don't need to actually open a filehandle in the traditional way (although you can) to do a filetest. You can simply append .IO to the filename. For instance, here is how to check if a file is readable using smartmatch: '/path/to/file'.IO ~~ :r You can, of course, use an already opened filehandle. Here, using the filehandle $fh, is an example, using the method syntax for the file test:

File tests include :e Exists :d Directory :f File :l Symbolic link :r Readable :w Writable :x Executable :s Size :z Zero size

## method spurt

Defined as:

Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows:

• :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob. • :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file.

## sub mkdir

Defined as:

Creates a new directory, including its parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option). That is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories as well if they do not exist.

Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

See also mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. ## routine rmdir Defined as: Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories. Method form returns True on success and throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted. To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module. ## method chmod Defined as: Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod.

The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number:

Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number):

## routine rename

Defined as:

Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move.

## routine copy

Defined as:

Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

## routine move

Defined as:

Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not.

## method Numeric

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

## method Int

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

Defined as:

Create a new symbolic link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Symlink if the symbolic link could not be created. If $target does not exist, creates a dangling symbolic link. To create a hard link, see link. Note: on Windows, creation of symbolic links may require escalated privileges. Defined as: Create a new hard link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Link if the hard link could not be created. To create a symbolic link, see symlink. Defined as: Delete all specified ordinary files, links, or symbolic links for which there are privileges to do so. See rmdir to delete directories. The subroutine form returns the names of all the files in the list, excluding those for which the filesystem raised some error; since trying to delete a file that does not exist does not raise any error at that level, this list will include the names of the files in the list that do not exist. The method form returns True on success, or fails with X::IO::Unlink if the operation could not be completed. If the file to be deleted does not exist, the routine treats it as success. ## method IO Defined as: Returns the invocant. ## method SPEC Defined as: Returns the IO::Spec object that was (implicitly) specified at object creation time. # File timestamp retrieval There are also 3 methods for fetching the 3 timestamps of a file (inode), on Operating Systems where these are available: ## method modified Returns an Instant object indicating when the content of the file was last modified. Compare with changed. ## method accessed Return an Instant object representing the timestamp when the file was last accessed. Note: depending on how the filesystem was mounted, the last accessed time may not update on each access to the file, but only on the first access after modifications. ## method changed Returns an Instant object indicating the metadata of the file or directory was last changed (e.g. permissions, or files created/deleted in directory). Compare with modified. # File permissions retrieval ## method mode Return an IntStr object representing the POSIX permissions of a file. The Str part of the result is the octal representation of the file permission, like the form accepted by the chmod(1) utility. The result of this can be used in the other methods that take a mode as an argument. # Type Graph # Routines supplied by role IO IO::Path does role IO, which provides the following routines: ## (IO) sub mkdir Defined as: Creates a new directory; see mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

Also creates parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option); that is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories if they do not exist, as well as foo/bar/ber/meow.

## (IO) sub chdir

Defined as:

Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir).

## (IO) sub indir

Defined as:

Takes Callable &code and executes it after locally (to &code) changing $*CWD variable to an IO::Path object based on $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. If $path is relative, it will be turned into an absolute path, even if an IO::Path object was given. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). The $*CWD outside of the &code is not affected, even if &code explicitly assigns a new value to $*CWD. Returns the return value of &code on success. On failure to successfully change $*CWD, returns Failure. WARNING: keep in mind that lazily evaluated things might end up NOT having the $*CWD set by indir in their dynamic scope by the time they're actually evaluated. Either ensure the generators have their $*CWD set or eagerly evaluate them before returning the results from indir:

The routine's $path argument can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are: • :d — check .d returns True • :r — check .r returns True • :w — check .w returns True • :x — check .x returns True • By default, only :d test is performed. ## (IO) sub print Defined as: Prints the given text on standard output (the $*OUT filehandle), coercing non-Str objects to Str by calling .Str method. Junction arguments autothread and the order of printed strings is not guaranteed.

To print text and include the trailing newline, use put.

## (IO) sub put

Defined as:

Same as print, except it uses print-nl (which prints a newline, by default) at the end. Junction arguments autothread and the order of printed strings is not guaranteed.

## (IO) sub say

Defined as:

Prints the "gist" of given objects. Same as put, except uses .gist method to obtain string representation of the object.

NOTE: the .gist method of some objects, such as Lists, returns only partial information about the object (hence the "gist"). If you mean to print textual information, you most likely want to use put instead.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

## (Cool) method exp

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

## (Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

## (Cool) routine round

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

## (Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine ceiling

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine truncate

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

## (Cool) routine ord

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

The inverse operation is chr.

Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

## (Cool) method path

Defined as:

DEPRECATED. Existed only in the Rakudo implementation and isn't part of any language released. Will issue deprecation warnings in future language versions and eventually will be removed entirely.

Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead.

## (Cool) routine chr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

The inverse operation is ord.

Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

## (Cool) routine chars

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”.

Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner).

You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave:

You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Perl 6 tightly follows, using a method called NFG, normal form graphemes for efficiently representing them.

## (Cool) routine codes

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

The same result will be obtained with

ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed.

## (Cool) routine flip

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

## (Cool) routine trim

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-leading

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-trailing

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine lc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

## (Cool) routine uc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

## (Cool) routine fc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

## (Cool) routine tc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

## (Cool) routine tclc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case.

Defined as:

## (Cool) method uniprop

Defined as:

Returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties.

## (Cool) method uniprops

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop

## (Cool) method uniname

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant / first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) method uninames

Defined as:

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

See uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) method unimatch

Defined as:

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

## (Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

## (Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

## (Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments.

## (Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option.

## (Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

## (Cool) routine split

Defined as:

NOTE: the comb routine is a much better choice for many tasks that in other languages are handled by the split.

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

Coerces the invocant and first argument to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $start. Returns True if $needle is found. Note that because of how a List or Array is coerced into a Str, the results may sometimes be surprising. See traps. ## (Cool) routine index Defined as: Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found. See the documentation in type Str for examples. ## (Cool) routine match Defined as: Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it. ## (Cool) method fmt Defined as: Uses $format to return a formatted representation of the invocant.

For more information about formats strings, see sprintf.

## (Cool) routine roots

Defined as:

Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

For example

## (Cool) method IO

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

## (Cool) routine EVAL

Defined as:

The method form calls subroutine form with invocant as $code, passing along named args, if any. Subroutine form coerces Cool $code to Str. If $code is a Blob, it'll be processed using the same encoding as the $lang compiler would: for perl6, uses the encoding specified via --encoding command line argument, or utf-8 if none were given; for Perl5, processes using same rules as perl.

This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

In case the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma is not activated, the compiler will complain with a EVAL is a very dangerous function!!! exception. And it is essentially right, since that will run arbitrary code with the same permissions as the program. You should take care of cleaning the code that is going to pass through EVAL if you activate the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma.

Please note that you can interpolate to create routine names using quotation, as can be seen in this example or other ways to interpolate to create identifier names. This only works, however, for already declared functions and other objects and is thus safer to use.

Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

And also the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

## (Cool) routine EVALFILE

Defined as:

Slurps the specified file and evaluates it. Behaves the same way as EVAL with regard to Blob decoding, scoping, and the \$lang parameter. Evaluates to the value produced by the final statement in the file.