# class IO::Path

File or directory path

The workhorse of IO operations.

Conceptually, an IO::Path object consists of a volume, a directory, and a basename. It supports both purely textual operations, and operations that access the file system, e.g. to resolve a path, or to read all content of a file.

## method dirname

Defined as:

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name.

## method volume

Defined as:

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

## method parts

Defined as:

Returns a Map with the keys volume, dirname, basename whose values are the same as available via methods .volume, .dirname, and .basename respectively.

## method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## method succ

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.succ on it.

## method open

Defined as:

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

## method pred

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.pred on it.

## method watch

Defined as:

Equivalent to calling IO::Notification.watch-path with the invocant as the argument.

## method is-absolute

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

Note that on Windows a path that starts with a slash or backslash is still considered absolute even if no volume was given, as it is absolute for that particular volume:

## method is-relative

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise. Windows caveats for .is-absolute apply.

Defined as:

## method e

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method d

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a directory. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method f

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a file. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method s

Defined as:

Returns the file size in bytes. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported size is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method l

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a symlink. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method r

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is accessible. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method w

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method rw

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is readable and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method x

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method rwx

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable, readable, and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method z

Defined as:

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and has size of 0. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported file size (and thus the result of this method) is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

TIP: use smartmatch with Pairs to perform multiple file tests.

## method sibling

Defined as:

Allows to reference a sibling file or directory. Returns a new IO::Path based on the invocant, with the .basename changed to $sibling. The $sibling is allowed to be a multi-part path fragment; see also .add.

## method words

Defined as:

Opens the invocant and returns its words.

The behaviour is equivalent to opening the file specified by the invocant, forwarding the :$chomp, :$enc, and :$nl-in arguments to IO::Handle.open, then calling IO::Handle.words on that handle, forwarding any of the remaining arguments to that method, and returning the resultant Seq. NOTE: the words are ready lazily and the handle used under the hood won't get closed until the returned Seq is fully reified, so ensure it is, or you'll be leaking open file handles. (TIP: use the $limit argument)

## method lines

Defined as:

Opens the invocant and returns its lines.

The behaviour is equivalent to opening the file specified by the invocant, forwarding the :$chomp, :$enc, and :$nl-in arguments to IO::Handle.open, then calling IO::Handle.lines on that handle, forwarding any of the remaining arguments to that method, and returning the resultant Seq. NOTE: the lines are ready lazily and the handle used under the hood won't get closed until the returned Seq is fully reified, so ensure it is, or you'll be leaking open file handles. (TIP: use the $limit argument)

Defined as:

Read all of the file's content and return it as either Buf, if :$bin is True, or if not, as Str decoded with :$enc encoding, which defaults to utf8. See &open for valid values for :$enc. ## method spurt Defined as: Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows: • :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob.

• :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file. • :$createonlyfail if the file already exists.

## method chdir

Defined as:

DEPRECATION NOTICE: this method will be deprecated in 6.d language and removed in 6.e. Do not use it for new code. Instead, create a new path or use add method. For altering current working directory see &chdir and &*chdir subroutines.

## routine rmdir

Defined as:

Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories.

Method form returns True on success and throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted.

To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module.

Defined as:

Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod. The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number: Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number): ## routine rename Defined as: Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason. Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move. ## routine copy Defined as: Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file. ## routine move Defined as: Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file. To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not. ## method Numeric Defined as: Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical. ## method Int Defined as: Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical. Defined as: Create a new symbolic link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Symlink if the symbolic link could not be created. If $target does not exist, creates a dangling symbolic link. To create a hard link, see link.

Note: on Windows, creation of symbolic links may require escalated privileges.

Defined as:

Create a new hard link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Link if the hard link could not be created. To create a symbolic link, see symlink.

Defined as:

Delete all specified ordinary files, links, or symbolic links. See rmdir to delete directories.

The subroutine form returns the names of the files that were successfully deleted. The method form returns True on success, or fails with X::IO::Unlink if the operation could not be completed.

## method IO

Defined as:

Returns the invocant.

## method SPEC

Defined as:

Returns the IO::Spec object that was (implicitly) specified at object creation time.

# File timestamp retrieval

There are also 3 methods for fetching the 3 timestamps of a file (inode), on Operating Systems where these are available:

## method modified

Returns an Instant object indicating when the file was last modified.

## method accessed

Return an Instant object representing the timestamp when the file was last accessed. Note: depending on how the filesystem was mounted, the last accessed time may not update on each access to the file, but only on the first access after modifications.

## method changed

Returns an Instant object indicating the file or directory was last changed.

# File permissions retrieval

## method mode

Return an IntStr object representing the POSIX permissions of a file. The Str part of the result is the octal representation of the file permission, like the form accepted by the chmod(1) utility.

The result of this can be used in the other methods that take a mode as an argument.

# Routines supplied by role IO

IO::Path does role IO, which provides the following methods:

Defined as:

Creates a new directory; see mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created. Also creates parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option); that is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories if they do not exist, as well as foo/bar/ber/meow. ## (IO) sub chdir Defined as: Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

• :d — check .d returns True

• :r — check .r returns True

• :w — check .w returns True

• :x — check .x returns True

• By default, only :d test is performed.

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

Use indir instead.

## (IO) sub &*chdir

Defined as:

Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path and sets the process's current directory to the value of $path.absolute. NOTE: that in most cases, you want to use chdir routine instead. Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object.

Note that unlike regular chdir, there are no arguments to specify which file tests to perform.

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

Use the following, instead; or see indir if you do not need to change process's current directory:

Defined as:

Coerces all @filenames to IO::Path and calls IO::Path.chmod with $mode on them. Returns a List containing a subset of @filenames for which chmod was successfully executed. ## (IO) sub indir Defined as: Takes Callable &code and executes it after locally (to &code) changing $*CWD variable to an IO::Path object based on $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. If $path is relative, it will be turned into an absolute path, even if an IO::Path object was given. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). The $*CWD outside of the &code is not affected, even if &code explicitly assigns a new value to $*CWD.

Returns the return value of &code on success. On failure to successfully change $*CWD, returns Failure. WARNING: keep in mind that lazily evaluated things might end up NOT having the $*CWD set by indir in their dynamic scope by the time they're actually evaluated. Either ensure the generators have their $*CWD set or eagerly evaluate them before returning the results from indir: The routine's $path argument can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

• :d — check .d returns True

• :r — check .r returns True

• :w — check .w returns True

• :x — check .x returns True

• By default, only :d test is performed.

Defined as:

## (IO) sub say

Defined as:

Prints the "gist" of given objects. Same as put, except uses .gist method to obtain string representation of the object.

NOTE: the .gist method of some objects, such as Lists, returns only partial information about the object (hence the "gist"). If you mean to print textual information, you most likely want to use put instead.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

## (Cool) method exp

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

## (Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

## (Cool) routine round

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

## (Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine ceiling

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine truncate

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

## (Cool) routine ord

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

The inverse operation is chr.

Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

## (Cool) method path

Defined as:

DEPRECATED. Existed only in the Rakudo implementation and isn't part of any language released. Issues deprecation warnings in 6.d language and will be removed entirely when 6.e language is released.

Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead.

## (Cool) routine chr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

The inverse operation is ord.

Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

## (Cool) routine chars

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”.

Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner).

You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave:

You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Perl 6 tightly follows.

## (Cool) routine codes

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

The same result will be obtained with

ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed.

## (Cool) routine flip

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

## (Cool) routine trim

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-trailing

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine lc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

## (Cool) routine uc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

## (Cool) routine fc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

## (Cool) routine tc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

## (Cool) routine tclc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case.

Defined as:

## (Cool) method uniprop

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties.

## (Cool) method uniprops

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop

## (Cool) method uniname

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant / first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) method uninames

Defined as:

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

See uniparse for the opposite direction.

## (Cool) method unimatch

Defined as:

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

## (Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

## (Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

## (Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments.

## (Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option.

## (Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

## (Cool) routine split

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

Coerces the invocant and first argument to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $start. Returns True if $needle is found. Note that because of how a List or Array is coerced into a Str, the results may sometimes be surprising. See traps. ## (Cool) routine index Defined as: Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine roots

Defined as:

Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

For example

## (Cool) method IO

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

## (Cool) routine EVAL

Defined as:

Method form calls subroutine form with invocant as $code, passing along named args, if any. Subroutine form coerces Cool $code to Str. If $code is a Blob, it'll be processed using the same encoding as the $lang compiler would: for perl6, uses the encoding specified via --encoding command line argument, or utf-8 if none were given; for Perl5, processes using same rules as perl.

This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

And also the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

Defined as:

Slurps the specified file and evaluates it. Behaves the same way as EVAL with regard to Blob decoding, scoping, and the $lang parameter. Evaluates to the value produced by the final statement in the file. # Routines supplied by class Any IO::Path inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods: ## (Any) method ACCEPTS Defined as: Usage: Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

Many built-in types override this for more specific comparisons

## (Any) method any

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

## (Any) method all

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

## (Any) method one

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates a one-Junction from it.

## (Any) method none

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates a none-Junction from it.

## (Any) method list

Defined as:

Applies the infix , operator to the invocant and returns the resulting List:

## (Any) method push

Defined as:

The method push is defined for undefined invocants and allows for autovivifying undefined to an empty Array, unless the undefined value implements Positional already. The argument provided will then be pushed into the newly created Array.

## (Any) routine reverse

Defined as:

Returns a Seq with the same elements in reverse order.

Note that reverse always refers to reversing elements of a list; to reverse the characters in a string, use flip.

Examples:

## (Any) method sort

Defined as:

Sorts iterables with cmp or given code object and returns a new Seq. Optionally, takes a Callable as a positional parameter, specifying how to sort.

Examples:

## (Any) method map

Defined as:

map will iterate over the invocant and apply the number of positional parameters of the code object from the invocant per call. The returned values of the code object will become elements of the returned Seq.

## (Any) method Array

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Array.

## (Any) method List

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to List, using the list method.

## (Any) method Hash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Hash by invoking the method hash on it.

## (Any) method hash

Defined as:

Creates a new Hash, empty in the case the invocant is undefined, or coerces the invocant to an Hash in the case it is defined.

## (Any) method Slip

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Slip.

## (Any) method Map

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Map.

## (Any) method Bag

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Bag, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method BagHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to BagHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Set

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Set, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method SetHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to SetHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Mix

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Mix, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method MixHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to MixHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Supply

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant first to a list by applying the invocant's .list method, and then to a Supply.

## (Any) method min

Defined As:

Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically smallest element.

If a Callable positional argument is provided, each value is passed into the filter, and its return value is compared instead of the original value. The original value is still the one returned from min.

## (Any) method max

Defined As:

Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically largest element.

If a Callable positional argument is provided, each value is passed into the filter, and its return value is compared instead of the original value. The original value is still the one returned from max.

## (Any) method minmax

Defined As:

Returns a Range from the smallest to the largest element.

If a Callable positional argument is provided, each value is passed into the filter, and its return value is compared instead of the original value. The original values are still used in the returned Range.

## (Any) method minpairs

Defined As:

Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with minimum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

## (Any) method maxpairs

Defined As:

Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with maximum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

## (Any) method keys

Defined As:

For defined Any returns its keys after calling list on it, otherwise calls list and returns it.

## (Any) method flatmap

Defined As:

Coerces the Any to a list by applying the .list method and uses List.flatmap on it.

In the case of Any, Any.list returns a 1-item list, as is shown.

## (Any) method roll

Defined As:

Coerces the invocant Any to a list by applying the .list method and uses List.roll on it.

## (Any) method pick

Defined As:

Coerces the Any to a list by applying the .list method and uses List.pick on it.

## (Any) method skip

Defined As:

Creates a Seq from 1-item list's iterator and uses Seq.skip on it.

## (Any) method prepend

Defined As:

Initializes Any variable as empty Array and calls Array.prepend on it.

## (Any) method unshift

Defined As:

Initializes Any variable as empty Array and calls Array.unshift on it.

## (Any) method first

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.first on it.

## (Any) method unique

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.unique on it.

## (Any) method repeated

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.repeated on it.

## (Any) method squish

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.squish on it.

## (Any) method permutations

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.permutations on it.

## (Any) method categorize

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.categorize on it.

## (Any) method classify

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.classify on it.

## (Any) method pairs

Defined As:

Returns an empty List if the invocant is undefined, otherwise converts the invocant to a List via the list method and calls List.pairs on it:

## (Any) method antipairs

Defined As:

Applies the method List.antipairs to the invocant, if it is defined, after having invoked list on it. If the invocant is not defined, it returns an empty List:

## (Any) method kv

Defined As:

Returns an empty List if the invocant is not defined, otherwise it does invoke list on the invocant and then returns the result of List.kv on the latter:

## (Any) method toggle

Defined as:

Iterates over the invocant, producing a Seq, toggling whether the received values are propagated to the result on and off, depending on the results of calling Callables in @conditions:

Imagine a switch that's either on or off (True or False), and values are produced if it's on. By default, the initial state of that switch is in "on" position, unless :$off is set to a true value, in which case the initial state will be "off". A Callable from the head of @conditions is taken (if any are available) and it becomes the current tester. Each value from the original sequence is tested by calling the tester Callable with that value. The state of our imaginary switch is set to the return value from the tester: if it's truthy, set switch to "on", otherwise set it to "off". Whenever the switch is toggled (i.e. switched from "off" to "on" or from "on" to "off"), the current tester Callable is replaced by the next Callable in @conditions, if available, which will be used to test any further values. If no more tester Callables are available, the switch will remain in its current state until the end of iteration. Since the toggle of the switch's state loads the next tester Callable, setting :$off to a True value affects when first tester is discarded:

## (Any) method tree

Defined As:

Returns the class if it's undefined or if it's not iterable, returns the result of applying the tree method to the elements if it's Iterable.

.tree has different prototypes for Iterable elements.

With a number, it iteratively applies tree to every element in the lower level; the first instance will apply .tree(0) to every element in the array, and likewise for the next example.

The second prototype applies the Whatever code passed as arguments to every level in turn; the first argument will go to level 1 and so on. tree can, thus, be a great way to process complex all levels of complex, multi-level, data structures.

## (Any) method nl-out

Defined As:

Returns Str with the value of "\n". See IO::Handle.nl-out for the details.

## (Any) method invert

Defined As:

Returns an empty List.

## (Any) method combinations

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.combinations on it.

## (Any) method iterator

Defined As:

Coerces the Any to a list by applying the .list method and uses iterator on it.

## (Any) method grep

Defined As:

Coerces the Any to a list by applying the .list method and uses List.grep on it.

Based on $matcher value can be either ((Any)) or empty List. ## (Any) method append Defined As: In the case the instance is not a positional-thing, it instantiate it as a new Array, otherwise clone the current instance. After that, it appends the values passed as arguments to the array obtained calling Array.append on it. ## (Any) method values Defined As: Returns an empty List. ## (Any) method collate Defined As: TODO ## (Any) method cache Defined As: Provides a List representation of the object itself, calling the method list on the instance. # Routines supplied by class Mu IO::Path inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods: ## (Mu) method defined Declared as Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise. Very few types (like Failure) override defined to return False even for instances: ## (Mu) routine defined Declared as invokes the .defined method on the object and returns its result. ## (Mu) routine isa Returns True if the invocant is an instance of class $type, a subset type or a derived class (through inheritance) of $type. A more idiomatic way to do this is to use the smartmatch operator ~~ instead. ## (Mu) routine does Returns True if and only if the invocant conforms to type $type.

Using the smart match operator ~~ is a more idiomatic alternative.

## (Mu) routine Bool

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Many built-in types override this to be False for empty collections, the empty string or numerical zeros

## (Mu) method Capture

Declared as:

Returns a Capture with named arguments corresponding to invocant's public attributes:

## (Mu) method Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable. Method Str warns on type objects, and produces the empty string.

## (Mu) routine gist

Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans. As such lists will be truncated at 100 elements. Use .perl to get all elements.

The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the perl method for defined invocants, and returns the type name in parenthesis for type object invocants. Many built-in classes override the case of instances to something more specific that may truncate output.

gist is the method that say calls implicitly, so say $something and say$something.gist generally produce the same output.

## (Mu) routine perl

Returns a Perlish representation of the object (i.e., can usually be re-evaluated with EVAL to regenerate the object). The exact output of perl is implementation specific, since there are generally many ways to write a Perl expression that produces a particular value

## (Mu) method item

Forces the invocant to be evaluated in item context and returns the value of it.

## (Mu) method self

Returns the object it is called on.

## (Mu) method clone

Creates a shallow clone of the invocant, including shallow cloning of private attributes. Alternative values for public attributes can be provided via named arguments with names matching the attributes' names.

Note that .clone does not go the extra mile to shallow-copy @. and %. sigiled attributes and, if modified, the modifications will still be available in the original object:

To clone those, you could implement your own .clone that clones the appropriate attributes and passes the new values to Mu.clone, for example, via nextwith. Alternatively, your own .clone could clone self first (using self.Mu::clone or callsame) and then manipulate the clone as needed, before returning it.

## (Mu) method new

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

new triggers an object construction mechanism that calls submethods named BUILD in each class of an inheritance hierarchy, if they exist. See the documentation on object construction for more information.

## (Mu) method bless

Lower-level object construction method than new.

Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

(Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

## (Mu) method CREATE

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using gist method with newline at end. To produce machine readable output use .put. ## (Mu) method ACCEPTS ACCEPTS is the method that smart matching with the infix ~~ operator and given/when invokes on the right-hand side (the matcher). The Mu:U multi performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

Note that there is no multi for defined invocants; this is to allow autothreading of junctions, which happens as a fallback mechanism when no direct candidate is available to dispatch to.

## (Mu) method WHICH

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.

## (Mu) method WHERE

Returns an Int representing the memory address of the object.

## (Mu) method WHY

Returns the attached Pod::Block::Declarator.

For instance:

See Pod declarator blocks for details about attaching Pod to variables, classes, functions, methods, etc.

## (Mu) trait is export

Marks a type as being exported, that is, available to external users.

A user of a module or class automatically gets all the symbols imported that are marked as is export.

See Exporting and Selective Importing Modules for more details.

## (Mu) method return

The method return will stop execution of a subroutine or method, run all relevant phasers and provide invocant as a return value to the caller. If a return type constraint is provided it will be checked unless the return value is Nil. A control exception is raised and can be caught with CONTROL.

## (Mu) method return-rw

Same as method return except that return-rw returns a writable container to the invocant (see more details here: return-rw).

## (Mu) method emit

Emits the invocant into the enclosing supply or react block.

## (Mu) method take

Returns the invocant in the enclosing gather block.

## (Mu) routine take

Takes the given item and passes it to the enclosing gather block.

## (Mu) routine take-rw

Returns the given item to the enclosing gather block, without introducing a new container.

## (Mu) method so

Returns a Bool value representing the logical non-negation of an expression. One can use this method similarly to the English sentence: "If that is so, then do this thing". For instance,

## (Mu) method not

Returns a Bool value representing the logical negation of an expression. Thus it is the opposite of so.

Since there is also a prefix version of not, the above code reads better like so: