class IO::Path::Cygwin

IO::Path pre-loaded with IO::Spec::Cygwin

class IO::Path::Cygwin is IO::Path { }

This sub-class of IO::Path, pre-loaded with IO::Spec::Cygwin in the $.SPEC attribute.

Methods

method new

Same as IO::Path.new, except :$SPEC cannot be set and defaults to IO::Spec::Cygwin, regardless of the operating system the code is being run on.

Type graph

Type relations for IO::Path::Cygwin
perl6-type-graph IO::Path::Cygwin IO::Path::Cygwin IO::Path IO::Path IO::Path::Cygwin->IO::Path Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Cool Cool Cool->Any IO IO IO::Path->Cool IO::Path->IO

Stand-alone image: vector

Routines supplied by class IO::Path

IO::Path::Cygwin inherits from class IO::Path, which provides the following methods:

(IO::Path) method new

    multi method new(Str:D $pathIO::Spec :$SPEC = $*SPECStr() :$CWD = $*CWD)
    multi method new(
        :$basename!:$dirname = '.':$volume = ''
        IO::Spec :$SPEC = $*SPECStr() :$CWD = $*CWD
    )

Creates a new IO::Path object from a path string (which is being parsed for volume, directory name and basename), or from volume, directory name and basename passed as named arguments.

The path's operation will be performed using :$SPEC semantics (defaults to current $*SPEC) and will use :$CWD as the directory the path is relative to (defaults to $*CWD).

(IO::Path) method ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(IO::Path:D: Cool:D $other --> Bool:D)

Coerces the argument to IO::Path, if necessary. Returns True if .absolute method on both paths returns the same string. NOTE: it's possible for two paths that superficially point to the same resource to NOT smartmatch as True, if they were constructed differently and were never fully resolved:

say "foo/../bar".IO ~~ "bar".IO # False 

The reason is the two paths above may point to different resources when fully resolved (e.g. if foo is a symlink). Resolve the paths before smartmatching to check they point to same resource:

say "foo/../bar".IO.resolve(:completely~~ "bar".IO.resolve(:completely# True 

(IO::Path) method basename

method basename(IO::Path:D:)

Returns the basename part of the path object, which is the name of the filesystem object itself that is referenced by the path.

"docs/README.pod".IO.basename.say# OUTPUT: «README.pod␤» 
"/tmp/".IO.basename.say;           # OUTPUT: «tmp␤» 

Note that in IO::Spec::Win32 semantics, the basename of a Windows share is \, not the name of the share itself:

IO::Path::Win32.new('//server/share').basename.say# OUTPUT: «\␤» 

(IO::Path) method add

method add(IO::Path:D: Str() $what --> IO::Path:D)

Concatenates a path fragment to the invocant and returns the resultant IO::Path.

"foo/bar".IO.add("meow")    .resolve.relative.say# OUTPUT: «foo/bar/meow␤» 
"foo/bar".IO.add("/meow")   .resolve.relative.say# OUTPUT: «foo/bar/meow␤» 
"foo/bar".IO.add("meow.txt").resolve.relative.say# OUTPUT: «foo/bar/meow.txt␤» 
"foo/bar".IO.add("../meow".resolve.relative.say# OUTPUT: «foo/meow␤» 
"foo/bar".IO.add("../../")  .resolve.relative.say# OUTPUT: «.␤» 

(IO::Path) method child

method child(IO::Path:D: Str() $childname --> IO::Path:D)

Alias for .add. NOTE: .child will be switched to secure version around 6.d release time, which will fail() with non-child paths and is also slower, since it has to do more work. Use .add if your code does not need to guarantee the added path is in fact a child path.

(IO::Path) method extension

Defined as:

multi method extension(IO::Path:D:                                         --> Str:D)
multi method extension(IO::Path:D:               Int :$parts               --> Str:D)
multi method extension(IO::Path:D:             Range :$parts               --> Str:D)
multi method extension(IO::Path:D: Str $subst,   Int :$partsStr :$joiner --> IO::Path:D)
multi method extension(IO::Path:D: Str $substRange :$partsStr :$joiner --> IO::Path:D)

Returns the extension consisting of $parts parts (defaults to 1), where a "part" is defined as a dot followed by possibly-empty string up to the end of the string, or previous part. That is "foo.tar.gz" has an extension of two parts: first part is "gz" and second part is "tar" and calling "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :2parts gives "tar.gz". If an extension with the specified number of $parts is not found, returns an empty string.

$parts can be a Range, specifying the minimum number of parts and maximum number of parts the extension should have. The routine will attempt to much the most parts it can. If $parts range's endpoints that are smaller than 0 they'll be treated as 0; implementations may treat endpoints larger than 2⁶³-1 as 2⁶³-1. Ranges with NaN or Str endpoints will cause an exception to be thrown.

If $subst is provided, the extension will be instead replaced with $subst and a new IO::Path object will be returned. It will be joined to the file's name with $joiner, which defaults to an empty string when $subst is an empty string and to "." when $subst is not empty. Note: if as the result of replacement the basename of the path ends up being empty, it will be assumed to be . (a single dot).

# Getting an extension: 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension;               # OUTPUT: «gz␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :2parts;      # OUTPUT: «tar.gz␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :parts(^5);   # OUTPUT: «tar.gz␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :parts(0..1); # OUTPUT: «gz␤» 
 
# Replacing an extension 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: '';                # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP';             # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar.ZIP".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':0parts;    # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar.gz.ZIP".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':2parts;    # OUTPUT: «"foo.ZIP".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':parts(^5); # OUTPUT: «"foo.ZIP".IO␤» 
 
# Replacing an extension using non-standard joiner: 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: '',    :joiner<_>;  # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar_".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':joiner<_>;  # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar_ZIP".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':joiner<_>,
                                       :2parts;     # OUTPUT: «"foo_ZIP".IO␤» 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':joiner<_>,
                                       :parts(^5);  # OUTPUT: «"foo_ZIP".IO␤» 
 
# EDGE CASES: 
 
# There is no 5-part extension, so returned value is an empty string 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :5parts; # OUTPUT: «␤» 
 
# There is no 5-part extension, so we replaced nothing: 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':5parts; # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar.gz".IO␤» 
 
# Replacing a 0-part extension is just appending: 
say "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: 'ZIP':0parts; # OUTPUT: «"foo.tar.gz.ZIP".IO␤» 
 
# Replace 1-part of the extension, using '.' joiner 
say "...".IO.extension: 'tar'# OUTPUT: «"....tar".IO␤» 
 
# Replace 1-part of the extension, using empty string joiner 
say "...".IO.extension: 'tar':joiner(''); # OUTPUT: «"...tar".IO␤» 
 
# Remove 1-part extension; results in empty basename, so result is ".".IO 
say ".".IO.extension: ''# OUTPUT: «".".IO␤» 

(IO::Path) method dirname

method dirname(IO::Path:D:)

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name.

say IO::Path.new("/home/camelia/myfile.p6").dirname;    # OUTPUT: «/home/camelia␤» 
say IO::Path.new("/home/camelia").dirname;              # OUTPUT: «/home␤» 
say IO::Path.new("/home").dirname;                      # OUTPUT: «/␤» 

(IO::Path) method volume

method volume(IO::Path:D:)

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

say IO::Path::Win32.new("C:\\Windows\\registry.ini").volume;    # OUTPUT: «C:␤» 

(IO::Path) method parts

method parts(IO::Path:D: --> Hash)

Returns a hash with the keys dirname, path and volume, and as values the return values of the methods with the same names.

say IO::Path.new("/etc/passwd").parts.perl;
# OUTPUT: «{:basename("passwd"), :directory("/etc"), :dirname("/etc"), :volume("")}␤» 

(IO::Path) method Str

method Str(IO::Path:D: --> Str)

Alias for IO::Path.path. In particular, note that default stringification of an IO::Path does NOT use the value of $.CWD attribute. To stringify while retaining full path information use .absolute or .relative methods.

(IO::Path) method open

method open(IO::Path:D: *%opts)

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

(IO::Path) method watch

method watch(IO::Path:D: --> Supply)

Watches the path for modifications. Only implemented in Rakudo with the MoarVM backend at the moment.

(IO::Path) method is-absolute

method is-absolute(IO::Path:D: --> Bool)

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

(IO::Path) method is-relative

method is-relative(IO::Path:D: --> Bool)

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise.

(IO::Path) method absolute

multi method absolute(IO::Path:D: --> Str)
multi method absolute(IO::Path:D: $base --> Str)

Returns a new Str object that is an absolute path. If the invocant is not already an absolute path, it is first made absolute using $base as base, if it is provided, or the .CWD attribute the object was created with if it is not.

(IO::Path) method relative

method relative(IO::Path:D: $base = $*CWD --> Str)

Returns a new Str object with the path relative to the $base. If $base is not provided, $*CWD is used in its place. If the invocant is not an absolute path, it's first made to be absolute using the .CWD attribute the object was created with, and then is made relative to $base.

(IO::Path) method parent

method parent(IO::Path:D: --> IO::Path)

Removes the last portion of the path and returns the result as a new IO::Path.

my $io = IO::Path.new"/etc/passwd" );
say $io.parent;                          # OUTPUT: «"/etc".IO␤» 

(IO::Path) method resolve

method resolve(IO::Path:D: :$completely --> IO::Path)

Returns a new IO::Path object with all symbolic links and references to the parent directory (..) resolved. This means that the filesystem is examined for each directory in the path, and any symlinks found are followed.

# bar is a symlink pointing to "/baz" 
my $io = "foo/./bar/..".IO.resolve;      # now "/" (the parent of "/baz") 

If :$completely, which defaults to False, is set to a true value, the method will fail if it cannot completely resolve the path, otherwise, it will resolve as much as possible, and will merely perform cleanup of the rest of the path. The last part of the path does NOT have to exist to :$completely resolve the path.

NOTE: Currently (April 2017) this method doesn't work correctly on all platforms, e.g. Windows, since it assumes POSIX semantics.

(IO::Path) routine dir

sub    dir(Cool $path = '.'Mu :$test = none('.''..'))
method dir(IO::Path:D: Mu :$test = none('.''..'))

Returns the contents of a directory as a lazy list of IO::Path objects representing relative paths, filtered by smart-matching their names against the :test parameter.

Examples:

# To iterate over the contents of the current directory: 
for dir() -> $file {
    say $file;
}
 
# As before, but include even '.' and '..' which are filtered out by 
# the default :test matcher: 
for dir(test => *-> $file {
    say $file;
}
 
# To get the names of all .jpg and .jpeg files in ~/Downloads: 
my @jpegs = "%*ENV<HOME>/Downloads".IO.dir(test => /:i '.' jpe?g $/.Str;

An example program that lists all files and directories recursively:

sub MAIN($dir = '.'{
    my @todo = $dir.IO;
    while @todo {
        for @todo.pop.dir -> $path {
            say $path.Str;
            @todo.push: $path if $path.d;
        }
    }
}

A lazy way to find the first three files ending in ".p6" recursively starting from the current directory:

my @stack = '.'.IO;
my $perl-files = gather while @stack {
    with @stack.pop {
        when :d { @stack.append: .dir }
        .take when .extension.lc eq 'p6'
    }
}
.put for $perl-files[^3];

(IO::Path) method e

method e(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists.

(IO::Path) method d

method d(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a directory. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method f

method f(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a file. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method s

method s(--> Int:D)

Returns the file size in bytes. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported size is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method l

method l(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is a symlink. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method r

method r(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is accessible. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method w

method w(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method rw

method rw(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is readable and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method x

method x(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method rwx

method rwx(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and is executable, readable, and writable. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method z

method z(--> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is a path that exists and has size of 0. May be called on paths that are directories, in which case the reported file size (and thus the result of this method) is dependent on the operating system. The method will fail with X::IO::DoesNotExist if the path points to a non-existent filesystem entity.

(IO::Path) method sibling

method sibling(IO::Path:D: Str() $sibling --> IO::Path:D)

Allows to reference a sibling file or directory. Returns a new IO::Path based on the invocant, with the # .basename changed to $sibling. The $sibling is allowed to be a multi-part path fragment, although # .add is a better choice for such use.

say '.bashrc'.IO.sibling: '.bash_aliases'# OUTPUT: «.bash_aliases".IO␤» 
say '/home/camelia/.bashrc'.IO.sibling: '.bash_aliases';
# OUTPUT: «/home/camelia/.bash_aliases".IO␤» 
 
say '/foo/' .IO.sibling: 'bar';  # OUTPUT: «/bar".IO␤» 
say '/foo/.'.IO.sibling: 'bar';  # OUTPUT: «/foo/bar".IO␤» 

(IO::Path) routine slurp

multi method slurp(IO::Path:D: :$bin:$enc)

Read all of the file's content and return it as either Buf, if :$bin is True, or if not, as Str decoded with :$enc encoding, which defaults to utf8. See &open for valid values for :$enc.

(IO::Path) method spurt

method spurt(IO::Path:D: $data:$enc:$append:$createonly)

Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows:

  • :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob.

  • :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file.

  • :$createonlyfail if the file already exists.

  • (IO::Path) method chdir

    multi method chdir(IO::Path:D: Str() $path:$d = True:$r:$w:$x)

    DEPRECATION NOTICE: this method will be deprecated in 6.d language. Do not use it for new code. Instead, create a new path or use add method. For altering current working directory see &chdir and &*chdir subroutines.

    Contrary to the name, the .chdir method does not change any directories, but merely concatenates the given $path to the invocant and returns the resultant IO::Path. Optional file tests can be performed by providing :d, :r, :w, or :x Bool named arguments; when set to True, they'll perform .d, .r, .w, and .x tests respectively. By default, only :d is set to True.

    (IO::Path) routine mkdir

    method mkdir(IO::Path:D: Int() $mode = 0o777 --> IO::Path:D)
    sub mkdir(   IO() $pathInt() $mode = 0o777 --> IO::Path:D)

    Creates a new directory. See mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

    Creates parent directories, as needed. That is, mkdir "foo/bar" will create foo if it does not exist.

    (IO::Path) routine rmdir

    sub    rmdir(IO $dir --> Bool)
    method rmdir(IO::Path:D: --> Bool)

    Remove the given directory if it is empty.

    Returns True on success. Throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory).

    Since this only works on an empty directory, to remove a directory and its contents you will have to do something more complex.

    # When we have a directory first recurse, then remove it 
    multi sub rm-all(IO::Path $path where :d{
        .&rm-all for $path.dir;
        rmdir($path)
    }
     
    # Otherwise just remove the thing directly 
    multi sub rm-all(IO::Path $path{ $path.unlink }

    See also rmtree in File::Directory::Tree.

    (IO::Path) method chmod

    method chmod(IO::Path:D: Int() $mode --> Bool)

    Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod.

    The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number:

    'myfile'.IO.chmod(0o444);          # make a file read-only 
    'somedir'.IO.chmod(0o777);         # set 0777 permissions on a directory 

    Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number):

    'myfile'.IO.chmod:  '0444';        # BAD!!! (interpreted as mode 0o674) 
    'myfile'.IO.chmod: '0o444';        # OK (an octal in a string) 
    'myfile'.IO.chmod:  0o444;         # Also OK (an octal literal) 

    (IO::Path) routine rename

    method rename(IO::Path:D: IO() $to:$createonly = False --> Bool:D)
    sub    rename(IO() $fromIO() $to:$createonly = False --> Bool:D)

    Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

    Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move.

    (IO::Path) routine copy

    method copy(IO::Path:D: IO() $to:$createonly --> Bool:D)
    sub    copy(IO() $fromIO() $to:$createonly --> Bool:D)

    Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

    (IO::Path) routine move

    method move(IO::Path:D: IO() $to:$createonly --> Bool:D)
    sub    move(IO() $fromIO() $to:$createonly --> Bool:D)

    Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

    To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not.

    method symlink(IO::Path:D $target: IO() $link --> Bool:D)
    sub    symlink(      IO() $targetIO() $link --> Bool:D)

    Create a new symbolic link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Symlink if the symbolic link could not be created. If $target does not exist, creates a dangling symbolic link. To create a hard link, see link.

    Note: on Windows, creation of symbolic links may require escalated privileges.

    method link(IO::Path:D $target: IO() $link --> Bool:D)
    sub    link(      IO() $targetIO() $link --> Bool:D)

    Create a new hard link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Link if the symbolic link could not be created. To create a symbolic link, see symlink.

    method unlink(IO::Path:D: --> Bool)
    sub    unlink(*@filenames --> List)

    Delete all specified ordinary files, links, or symbolic links.

    The subroutine form returns the names of the files that were successfully deleted. The method form returns True on success, or fails with X::IO::Unlink if the operation could not be completed.

    (IO::Path) method IO

    method IO(IO::Path:D: --> IO::Path)

    Returns the invocant.

    (IO::Path) method SPEC

    method SPEC(IO::Path:D: --> IO::Spec)

    Returns the IO::Spec object that was (implicitly) specified at object creation time.

    my $io = IO::Path.new("/bin/bash");
    say $io.SPEC;                            # OUTPUT: «(Unix)␤» 
    say $io.SPEC.dir-sep;                    # OUTPUT: «/␤» 

    (IO::Path) method modified

    Returns an Instant object indicating when the file was last modified.

    say "path/to/file".IO.modified;          # Instant:1424089165 
    say "path/to/file".IO.modified.DateTime# 2015-02-16T12:18:50Z 

    (IO::Path) method accessed

    Return an Instant object representing the timestamp when the file was last accessed. Note: depending on how the filesystem was mounted, the last accessed time may not update on each access to the file, but only on the first access after modifications.

    say "path/to/file".IO.accessed;          # Instant:1424353577 
    say "path/to/file".IO.accessed.DateTime# 2015-02-19T13:45:42Z 

    (IO::Path) method changed

    Returns an Instant object indicating the file or directory was last changed.

    say "path/to/file".IO.changed;           # Instant:1424089165 
    say "path/to/file".IO.changed.DateTime;  # 2015-02-16T12:18:50Z 

    (IO::Path) method mode

    Return an IntStr object representing the POSIX permissions of a file. The Str part of the result is the octal representation of the file permission, like the form accepted by the chmod(1) utility.

    say ~"path/to/file".IO.mode;        # e.g. '0644' 
    say +"path/to/file".IO.mode;        # e.g. 420, where sprintf('%04o', 420) eq '0644' 

    The result of this can be used in the other methods that take a mode as an argument.

    "path/to/file1".IO.chmod("path/to/file2".IO.mode);  # will change the 
                                                        # permissions of file1 
                                                        # to be the same as file2 

    Methods supplied by role IO

    IO::Path::Cygwin inherits from class IO::Path, which does role IO, which provides the following methods:

    (IO) sub chdir

    Defined as:

    sub chdir(IO() $path:$d = True:$r:$w:$x --> IO::Path:D)

    Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir).

    Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

  • :d — check .d returns True

  • :r — check .r returns True

  • :w — check .w returns True

  • :x — check .x returns True

  • By default, only :d test is performed.

        chdir         '/tmp'# change $*CWD to '/tmp' and check its .d is True 
        chdir :r:w'/tmp'# … check its .r and .w are True 
        chdir '/not-there';   # returns Failure 

    Note that the following construct is a mistake:

        # WRONG! DO NOT DO THIS! 
        my $*CWD = chdir '/tmp/';

    Use indir instead.

    (IO) sub &*chdir

    Defined as:

        PROCESS:<&chdir> = sub (IO() $path --> IO::Path:D)

    Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path and sets the process's current directory to the value of $path.absolute. NOTE: that in most cases, you want to use chdir routine instead.

    Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object.

    Note that unlike regular chdir, there are no arguments to specify which file tests to perform.

        &*chdir('/tmp');  # change $*CWD and process's current directory to '/tmp' 
        &*chdir('/not-there'); # returns Failure 

    Note that the following construct is a mistake:

        # WRONG! DO NOT DO THIS! 
        my $*CWD = &*chdir('/tmp');

    Use the following, instead; or see indir if you do not need to change process's current directory:

        temp $*CWD;
        &*chdir('/tmp');

    (IO) sub chmod

    sub chmod(Int() $mode*@filenames --> List)

    Coerces all @filenames to IO::Path and calls IO::Path.chmod with $mode on them. Returns a List containing a subset of @filenames for which chmod was successfully executed.

    chmod 0o755, <myfile1  myfile2># make two files executable by the owner 

    (IO) sub indir

    Defined as:

    sub indir(IO() $path&code:$d = True:$r:$w:$x --> Mu)

    Takes Callable &code and executes it after locally (to &code) changing $*CWD variable to $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). The $*CWD outside of the &code is not affected, even if &code explicitly assigns a new value to $*CWD.

    Returns the return value of &code on success. On failure to successfully change $*CWD, returns Failure. WARNING: keep in mind that lazily evaluated things might end up NOT having the $*CWD set by indir in their dynamic scope by the type they're actually evaluated. Either ensure the generators have their $*CWD set or eagerly evaluate them before returning the results from indir:

    say indir("/tmp"{
        gather { take ".".IO }
    }.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/home/camelia)␤» 
     
    say indir("/tmp"{
        eager gather { take ".".IO }
    }.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/tmp)␤» 
     
    say indir("/tmp"{
        my $cwd = $*CWD;
        gather { temp $*CWD = $cwdtake ".".IO }
    }.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/tmp)␤» 

    The routine's $path argument can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

  • :d — check .d returns True

  • :r — check .r returns True

  • :w — check .w returns True

  • :x — check .x returns True

  • By default, only :d test is performed.

    say $*CWD;                   # OUTPUT: «"/home/camelia".IO␤» 
    indir '/tmp'{ say $*CWD }# OUTPUT: «"/tmp".IO␤» 
    say $*CWD;                   # OUTPUT: «"/home/camelia".IO␤» 
     
    indir '/not-there'{;};     # returns Failure; path does not exist 

    (IO) sub print

    Print the given text on $*OUT (standard output), e.g.:

    print "Hi there!\n";   # Hi there! 

    Note that the print function does not (in contrast to some other languages) append a newline character to the text. Thus the following code

    print "Hi there!";
    print "How are you?";
    print (0..101).list;

    displays

    Hi there!How are you?0123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101

    To print text implicitly including the trailing newline character, use say.

    (IO) sub put

    Print the given text on $*OUT (standard output) with appended $*OUT.nl-out. The default for the latter is the platform dependent newline sequence.

    put 'Merry 1.0!';
    put (0..101).list;

    outputs

    Merry 1.0!
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101

    (IO) sub say

    Print the given text in human readable form, followed by a $*OUT.nl-out (platform dependent newline) on $*OUT (standard output). Long output may be truncated. For machine readable output use put.

    With say, the example code as mentioned in the print section will be displayed as the user likely intended:

    say "Hi there!";
    say "How are you?";
    say (0..101).list;

    displays

    Hi there!
    How are you?
    (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 ...)␤

    say prints non-Str objects by calling their .gist method before printing. Hence the following say statements for the respective containers are equivalent:

    my @array = qw{1 2 3 4};
    say @array;       # OUTPUT: «[1 2 3 4]␤» 
    say @array.gist;  # OUTPUT: «[1 2 3 4]␤» 
     
    my %hash = "a" => 1"b" => 2"c" => 3;
    say %hash;        # OUTPUT: «{a => 1, b => 2, c => 3}␤» 
    say %hash.gist;   # OUTPUT: «{a => 1, b => 2, c => 3}␤» 

    (IO) sub note

    Print the given text, followed by a newline "\n" on $*ERR (standard error). Before printing, call the .gist method on any non-Str objects.

    note is effectively say, only it writes its output to the standard error stream. For instance:

    if ("path/to/pirate/treasure".IO.e{
        say "Found pirate treasure!";
    }
    else {
        note "Could not find pirate treasure.  Are you sure it exists?";
    }

    will report (on the standard output stream) that treasure has been found if it exists or will note on the error stream that it couldn't be found if it doesn't exist.

    (IO) sub prompt

    sub prompt($msg)

    Prints $msg to standard output and waits for the user to type something and finish with an ENTER. Returns the string typed in without the trailing newline.

    my $name = prompt("Hi, what's your name? ");

    (IO) sub open

    my $fh = open(IO::Path() $path:$r:$w:$a:$rw,
                  :$bin:$enc:$nl-in:$nl-out:$chomp)

    Opens the $path (by default in text mode) with the given options, returning an IO::Handle object. In order to close the IO::Handle one needs to call close explicitly or use a LEAVE phaser.

    File mode options

  • read-only mode, :r

  • Open the file as read only, e.g.:

    my $fh = open("path/to/file":r);

    This is the default mode for open.

    Write-related methods on the returned IO::Handle object will fail in this mode:

    my $fh = open("test");   # the file "test" already exists 
    $fh.print("new text\n"); # fails 
    CATCH { default { put .^name''.Str } };
    # OUTPUT: «X::AdHoc: Failed to write bytes to filehandle: bad file descriptor␤» 
  • write-only mode, :w

  • Open the file for writing, creating it if it doesn't exist or overwriting the file if it does exist, e.g.:

    my $fh = open("path-to-file":w);

    Read-related methods will fail in this mode:

    my $fh = open("test":w);
    $fh.print("stuff\n");
    $fh.print("more stuff\n");
    $fh.seek(0);      # return to the start of the file 
    $fh.get();        # fails 
    CATCH { default { put .^name''.Str } };
    # OUTPUT: «Reading from filehandle failed: bad file descriptor␤» 
  • read-write mode, :rw

  • Open the file for reading and writing, creating the file if it doesn't exist or overwriting the file if it already exists.

    my $fh = open("path-to-file":rw);
  • append mode, :a

  • Open the file for appending. If the file does not exist, create it. If the file already exists, append data to it.

    my $fh = open("path-to-file":a);

    Encoding options

  • binary mode, :bin

  • Open the file in binary mode (byte mode):

    my $fh = open("path-to-file":bin);

    A file opened with :bin may still be processed line-by-line, but IO will be in terms of Buf rather than Str types. Default is False, implying text semantics.

  • text mode encoding, :enc

  • The encoding to use if opened in text mode.

    my $fh1 = open 'path-to-file';                # default, utf-8 
    my $fh2 = open 'path-to-file':enc<latin-1># explicit, latin-1 

    Defaults to utf8. The values are case-insensitive. The available encodings vary by implementation and backend. On Rakudo MoarVM the following are supported:

      utf8
      utf16
      utf8-c8
      iso-8859-1
      windows-1252
      ascii

    Implementation may choose to also provide support for aliases, e.g. Rakudo allows aliases latin-1 for iso-8859-1 encoding and dashed utf versions: utf-8 and utf-16.

    Newline options

  • end-of-line (EOL) marker, :nl-in, :nl-out

  • nl-in is the marker used to indicate the end of a line of text. Only used in text mode. Defaults to ["\n", "\r\n"] and does not include "\r". nl-out defaults to "\n".

    # explicitly use CR-LF as EOL character 
    my $fh = open("path-to-file"nl-in => "\r\n");
  • chomp mode, :chomp

  • Whether or not to remove newline characters from text obtained with .lines and .get. Defaults to True.

    # don't remove newline characters from input 
    my $fh = open("path-to-file"chomp => False);
    say $fh.get();     # returns line including newline char 

    (IO) method close

    To close an open file handle, simply call its close method:

    my $fh = open("path-to-file");
    # ... do stuff with the file 
    $fh.close;

    It is also possible to call this as a sub, thus the example above can be written equivalently like so:

    my $fh = open("path-to-file");
    # ... do stuff with the file 
    close $fh;

    When a file was opened for writing, closing it is important to ensure that all contents are actually written to the file. You may want to consider using a LEAVE phaser to guard against exceptions in your code that could prevent your program from reaching the line with $fh.close.

    (IO) sub slurp

    Slurps the contents of the entire file into a Str (or Buf if :bin). Accepts :bin and :enc optional named parameters, with the same meaning as open(). The routine will fail if the file does not exist, or is a directory.

    # read entire file as (Unicode) Str 
    #my $text_contents   = slurp "path-to-file"; 
     
    # read entire file as Latin1 Str 
    #my $text_contents   = slurp "path-to-file", enc => "latin1"; 
     
    # read entire file as Buf 
    #my $binary_contents = slurp "path-to-file", :bin; 

    (IO) sub spurt

    Defined as:

    multi spurt(IO() $path|c)

    The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. Calls IO::Path.spurt on the $path, forwarding any of the remaining arguments.

    Options

  • :enc

  • The encoding with which the contents will be written.

  • :bin

  • Open the file in binary mode.

  • :append

  • Boolean indicating whether to append to a (potentially) existing file. If the file did not exist yet, it will be created. Defaults to False.

  • :createonly

  • Boolean indicating whether to fail if the file already exists. Defaults to False.

    Examples

    # write directly to a file 
    #spurt "path/to/file", "default text, directly written"; 
     
    # write directly with a non-Unicode encoding 
    #spurt "path/to/latin1_file", "latin1 text: äöüß", enc => "latin1"; 
     
    # append to a pre-existing file 
    #spurt "file_already_exists", "some text"; 
    #spurt "file_already_exists", "new text", :append; 
    #slurp "file_already_exists";   # some text␤new text 
     
    # fail when writing to a pre-existing file 
    #spurt "file_already_exists", "new text", :createonly; 
    CATCH { default { put .^name''.Str } };
    # OUTPUT: «X::Cannot::Empty: Cannot pop from an empty Array␤» 

    (IO) sub run

    sub run(*@args ($*@) --> Proc)

    Runs an external command without involving a shell and returns a Proc object.

    run 'touch''>foo.txt';
     
    run Q:w{rm >foo.txt}# Another way to use run, using word quoting for the 
                          # arguments 

    To capture output you can use the :out argument:

    my $proc = run 'echo''Perl 6 is Great!':out;
    say $proc.out.get# OUTPUT: Perl 6 is Great! 

    See Proc and Proc::Async for more details.

    (IO) sub shell

    sub shell($cmd --> Proc)

    Runs a command through the system shell. All shell meta characters are interpreted by the shell, including pipes, redirects, environment variable substitutions and so on. Shell escapes are a severe security concern and can cause confusion with unusual file names. Use run if you want to be safe.

    The return value is of type Proc.

    shell 'ls -lR | gzip -9 > ls-lR.gz';

    See Proc for more details, for example on how to capture output.

    Routines supplied by class Cool

    IO::Path::Cygwin inherits from class Cool, which provides the following methods:

    (Cool) routine abs

    Defined as:

    sub abs(Numeric() $x)
    method abs()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric and returns the absolute value (that is, a non-negative number).

    say (-2).abs;       # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
    say abs "6+8i";     # OUTPUT: «10␤» 

    (Cool) method conj

    Defined as:

    method conj()

    Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns the complex conjugate (that is, the number with the sign of the imaginary part negated).

    say (1+2i).conj;        # OUTPUT: «1-2i␤» 

    (Cool) routine sqrt

    Defined as:

    sub sqrt(Numeric(Cool$x)
    method sqrt()

    Coerces the invocant to Numeric (or in the sub form, the argument) and returns the square root, that is, a non-negative number that, when multiplied with itself, produces the original number.

    say 4.sqrt;             # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
    say sqrt(2);            # OUTPUT: «1.4142135623731␤» 

    (Cool) method sign

    Defined as:

    method sign()

    Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns its sign, that is, 0 if the number is 0, 1 for positive and -1 for negative values.

    say 6.sign;             # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say (-6).sign;          # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 
    say "0".sign;           # OUTPUT: «0␤» 

    (Cool) method rand

    Defined as:

    method rand()

    Coerces the invocant to Num and returns a pseudo-random value between zero and the number.

    say 1e5.rand;           # OUTPUT: «33128.495184283␤» 

    (Cool) routine sin

    Defined as:

    sub sin(Numeric(Cool))
    method sin()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its sine.

    say sin(0);             # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say sin(pi/4);          # OUTPUT: «0.707106781186547␤» 
    say sin(pi/2);          # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

    Note that Perl 6 is no computer algebra system, so sin(pi) typically does not produce an exact 0, but rather a very small floating-point number.

    (Cool) routine asin

    Defined as:

    sub asin(Numeric(Cool))
    method asin()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-sine in radians.

    say 0.1.asin;               # OUTPUT: «0.10016742116156␤» 
    say asin(0.1);              # OUTPUT: «0.10016742116156␤» 

    (Cool) routine cos

    Defined as:

    sub cos(Numeric(Cool))
    method cos()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosine.

    say 0.cos;                  # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say pi.cos;                 # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 
    say cos(pi/2);              # OUTPUT: «6.12323399573677e-17␤» 

    (Cool) routine acos

    Defined as:

    sub acos(Numeric(Cool))
    method acos()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosine in radians.

    say 1.acos;                 # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say acos(-1);               # OUTPUT: «3.14159265358979␤» 

    (Cool) routine tan

    Defined as:

    sub tan(Numeric(Cool))
    method tan()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its tangent.

    say tan(3);                 # OUTPUT: «-0.142546543074278␤» 
    say 3.tan;                  # OUTPUT: «-0.142546543074278␤» 

    (Cool) routine atan

    Defined as:

    sub atan(Numeric(Cool))
    method atan()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-tangent in radians.

    say atan(3);                # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 
    say 3.atan;                 # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 

    (Cool) routine atan2

    Defined as:

    sub atan2(Numeric() $xNumeric() $y = 1e0)
    method atan2($y = 1e0)

    Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns their two-argument arc-tangent in radians.

    say atan2(3);               # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 
    say 3.atan2;                # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 

    (Cool) method sec

    Defined as:

    sub sec(Numeric(Cool))
    method sec()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its secant, that is, the reciprocal of its cosine.

    say 45.sec;                 # OUTPUT: «1.90359440740442␤» 
    say sec(45);                # OUTPUT: «1.90359440740442␤» 

    (Cool) routine asec

    Defined as:

    sub asec(Numeric(Cool))
    method asec()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-secant in radians.

    say 1.asec;                 # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say sqrt(2).asec;           # OUTPUT: «0.785398163397448␤» 

    (Cool) routine cosec

    Defined as:

    sub cosec(Numeric(Cool))
    method cosec()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosecant, that is, the reciprocal of its sine.

    say 0.45.cosec;             # OUTPUT: «2.29903273150897␤» 
    say cosec(0.45);            # OUTPUT: «2.29903273150897␤» 

    (Cool) routine acosec

    Defined as:

    sub acosec(Numeric(Cool))
    method acosec()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosecant in radians.

    say 45.acosec;              # OUTPUT: «0.0222240516182672␤» 
    say acosec(45)              # OUTPUT: «0.0222240516182672␤» 

    (Cool) routine cotan

    Defined as:

    sub cotan(Numeric(Cool))
    method cotan()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cotangent, that is, the reciprocal of its tangent.

    say 45.cotan;               # OUTPUT: «0.617369623783555␤» 
    say cotan(45);              # OUTPUT: «0.617369623783555␤» 

    (Cool) routine acotan

    Defined as:

    sub acotan(Numeric(Cool))
    method acotan()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cotangent in radians.

    say 45.acotan;              # OUTPUT: «0.0222185653267191␤» 
    say acotan(45)              # OUTPUT: «0.0222185653267191␤» 

    (Cool) routine sinh

    Defined as:

    sub sinh(Numeric(Cool))
    method sinh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in method form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Sine hyperbolicus.

    say 1.sinh;                 # OUTPUT: «1.1752011936438␤» 
    say sinh(1);                # OUTPUT: «1.1752011936438␤» 

    (Cool) routine asinh

    Defined as:

    sub asinh(Numeric(Cool))
    method asinh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Sine hyperbolicus.

    say 1.asinh;                # OUTPUT: «0.881373587019543␤» 
    say asinh(1);               # OUTPUT: «0.881373587019543␤» 

    (Cool) routine cosh

    Defined as:

    sub cosh(Numeric(Cool))
    method cosh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Cosine hyperbolicus.

    say cosh(0.5);              # OUTPUT: «1.12762596520638␤» 

    (Cool) routine acosh

    Defined as:

    sub acosh(Numeric(Cool))
    method acosh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Cosine hyperbolicus.

    say acosh(45);              # OUTPUT: «4.4996861906715␤» 

    (Cool) routine tanh

    Defined as:

    sub tanh(Numeric(Cool))
    method tanh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians and returns its Tangent hyperbolicus.

    say tanh(0.5);              # OUTPUT: «0.46211715726001␤» 
    say tanh(atanh(0.5));       # OUTPUT: «0.5␤» 

    (Cool) routine atanh

    Defined as:

    sub atanh(Numeric(Cool))
    method atanh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse tangent hyperbolicus.

    say atanh(0.5);             # OUTPUT: «0.549306144334055␤» 

    (Cool) routine sech

    Defined as:

    sub sech(Numeric(Cool))
    method sech()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Secant hyperbolicus.

    say 0.sech;                 # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

    (Cool) routine asech

    Defined as:

    sub asech(Numeric(Cool))
    method asech()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic secant.

    say 0.8.asech;              # OUTPUT: «0.693147180559945␤» 

    (Cool) routine cosech

    Defined as:

    sub cosech(Numeric(Cool))
    method cosech()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cosecant.

    say cosech(pi/2);           # OUTPUT: «0.434537208094696␤» 

    (Cool) routine acosech

    Defined as:

    sub acosech(Numeric(Cool))
    method acosech()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cosecant.

    say acosech(4.5);           # OUTPUT: «0.220432720979802␤» 

    (Cool) routine cotanh

    Defined as:

    sub cotanh(Numeric(Cool))
    method cotanh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cotangent.

    say cotanh(pi);             # OUTPUT: «1.00374187319732␤» 

    (Cool) routine acotanh

    Defined as:

    sub acotanh(Numeric(Cool))
    method acotanh()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cotangent.

    say acotanh(2.5);           # OUTPUT: «0.423648930193602␤» 

    (Cool) routine cis

    Defined as:

    sub cis(Numeric(Cool))
    method cis()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns cos(argument) + i*sin(argument).

    say cis(pi/4);              # OUTPUT: «0.707106781186548+0.707106781186547i␤» 

    (Cool) routine log

    Defined as:

    multi sub log(Numeric(Cool$numberNumeric(Cool$base?)
    multi method log(Cool:D: Cool:D $base?)

    Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base $base, or to base e (Euler's Number) if no base was supplied (Natural logarithm). Returns NaN if $base is negative. Throws an exception if $base is 1.

    say (e*e).log;              # OUTPUT: «2␤» 

    (Cool) routine log10

    Defined as:

    multi sub log10(Cool(Numeric))
    multi method log10()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

    say log10(1001);            # OUTPUT: «3.00043407747932␤» 

    (Cool) method exp

    Defined as:

    multi sub exp(Cool:D $powCool:D $base?)
    multi method exp(Cool:D: Cool:D $base?)

    Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

    say 0.exp;      # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say 1.exp;      # OUTPUT: «2.71828182845905␤» 
    say 10.exp;     # OUTPUT: «22026.4657948067␤» 

    (Cool) method unpolar

    Defined as:

    method unpolar(Numeric(Cool))

    Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

    say sqrt(2).unpolar(pi/4);      # OUTPUT: «1+1i␤» 

    (Cool) routine round

    Defined as:

    multi sub round(Numeric(Cool))
    multi method round(Cool:D: $unit = 1)

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

    say 1.7.round;          # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
    say 1.07.round(0.1);    # OUTPUT: «1.1␤» 
    say 21.round(10);       # OUTPUT: «20␤» 

    Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

    say (−.5 ).round;       # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say ( .5 ).round;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say (−.55).round(.1);   # OUTPUT: «-0.5␤» 
    say ( .55).round(.1);   # OUTPUT: «0.6␤» 

    (Cool) routine floor

    Defined as:

    multi sub floor(Numeric(Cool))
    multi method floor

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

    say "1.99".floor;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say "-1.9".floor;       # OUTPUT: «-2␤» 
    say 0.floor;            # OUTPUT: «0␤» 

    (Cool) routine ceiling

    Defined as:

    multi sub ceiling(Numeric(Cool))
    multi method ceiling

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

    say "1".ceiling;        # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say "-0.9".ceiling;     # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say "42.1".ceiling;     # OUTPUT: «43␤» 

    (Cool) routine truncate

    Defined as:

    multi sub truncate(Numeric(Cool))
    multi method truncate()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

    say 1.2.truncate;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say truncate -1.2;      # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 

    (Cool) routine ord

    Defined as:

    sub ord(Str(Cool))
    method ord()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

    say 'a'.ord;            # OUTPUT: «97␤» 

    The inverse operation is chr.

    Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

    (Cool) routine chr

    Defined as:

    sub chr(Int(Cool))
    method chr()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

    say '65'.chr;       # OUTPUT: «A␤» 

    The inverse operation is ord.

    Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

    (Cool) routine chars

    Defined as:

    sub chars(Str(Cool))
    method chars()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

    say 'møp'.chars;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

    (Cool) routine codes

    Defined as:

    sub codes(Str(Cool))
    method codes()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

    say 'møp'.codes;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

    (Cool) routine flip

    Defined as:

    sub flip(Str(Cool))
    method flip()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

    say 421.flip;       # OUTPUT: «124␤» 

    (Cool) routine trim

    Defined as:

    sub trim(Str(Cool))
    method trim()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

    my $stripped = '  abc '.trim;
    say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<abc>␤» 

    (Cool) routine trim-leading

    Defined as:

    sub trim-leading(Str(Cool))
    method trim-leading()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

    my $stripped = '  abc '.trim-leading;
    say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<abc >␤» 

    (Cool) routine trim-trailing

    Defined as:

    sub trim-trailing(Str(Cool))
    method trim-trailing()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

    my $stripped = '  abc '.trim-trailing;
    say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<  abc>␤» 

    (Cool) routine lc

    Defined as:

    sub lc(Str(Cool))
    method lc()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

    say "ABC".lc;       # OUTPUT: «abc␤» 

    (Cool) routine uc

    Defined as:

    sub uc(Str(Cool))
    method uc()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

    say "Abc".uc;       # OUTPUT: «ABC␤» 

    (Cool) routine fc

    Defined as:

    sub fc(Str(Cool))
    method fc()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

    say "groß".fc;       # OUTPUT: «gross␤» 

    (Cool) routine tc

    Defined as:

    sub tc(Str(Cool))
    method tc()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

    say "abC".tc;       # OUTPUT: «AbC␤» 

    (Cool) routine tclc

    Defined as:

    sub tclc(Str(Cool))
    method tclc()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case..

    say 'abC'.tclc;     # OUTPUT: «Abc␤» 

    (Cool) routine wordcase

    Defined as:

    sub wordcase(Str(Cool$input:&filter = &tclcMu :$where = True)
    method wordcase(:&filter = &tclcMu :$where = True)

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and filters each word that smart-matches against $where through the &filter. With the default filter (first character to upper case, rest to lower) and matcher (which accepts everything), this title-cases each word:

    say "perl 6 programming".wordcase;      # OUTPUT: «Perl 6 Programming␤» 

    With a matcher:

    say "have fun working on perl".wordcase(:where({ .chars > 3 }));
                                            # Have fun Working on Perl 

    With a customer filter too:

    say "have fun working on perl".wordcase(:filter(&uc), :where({ .chars > 3 }));
                                            # HAVE fun WORKING on PERL 

    (Cool) routine samecase

    Defined as:

    sub samecase(Cool $stringCool $pattern)
    method samecase(Cool:D: Cool $pattern)

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a copy of $string with case information for each individual character changed according to $pattern. (The pattern string can contain three types of characters, i.e. uppercase, lowercase and caseless. For a given character in $pattern its case information determines the case of the corresponding character in the result.) If $string is longer than $pattern, the case information from the last character of $pattern is applied to the remaining characters of $string.

    say "perL 6".samecase("A__a__"); # OUTPUT: «Perl 6␤» 
    say "pERL 6".samecase("Ab");     # OUTPUT: «Perl 6␤» 

    (Cool) method uniprop

    Defined as:

    multi sub uniprop(Str(Cool), |c)
    multi sub uniprop(Int:D $codeStringy:D $propname)
    multi sub uniprop(Str$codeStringy:D $propname)
    multi method uniprop(|c)

    Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties.

    say 'a'.uniprop;               # OUTPUT: «Ll␤» 
    say '1'.uniprop;               # OUTPUT: «Nd␤» 
    say 'a'.uniprop('Alphabetic'); # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say '1'.uniprop('Alphabetic'); # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Cool) method uniprops

    Defined as:

    sub uniprops(Str:D $strStringy:D $propname = "General_Category")

    Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop

    (Cool) method uniname

    Defined as:

    sub uniname(Str(Cool--> Str)
    method uniname(--> Str)

    Interprets the invocant / first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints.

    # Camelia in Unicode 
    say »ö«.uniname;
    # OUTPUT: «"RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK"␤» 
    say "Ḍ̇".uniname# Note, doesn't show "COMBINING DOT ABOVE" 
    # OUTPUT: «"LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT BELOW"␤» 
     
    # Find the char with the longest Unicode name. 
    say (0..0x1FFFF).sort(*.uniname.chars)[*-1].chr.uniname;
    # OUTPUT: ««ARABIC LIGATURE UIGHUR KIRGHIZ YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE WITH ALEF MAKSURA INITIAL FORM␤»␤» 

    (Cool) method uninames

    Defined as:

    sub uninames(Str:D)
    method uninames()

    Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

    say »ö«.uninames.perl;
    # OUTPUT: «("RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK", "LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS", "LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK").Seq␤» 

    Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

    say "Ḍ̇'oh".comb>>.uninames.perl;
    # OUTPUT: «(("LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT BELOW", "COMBINING DOT ABOVE").Seq, ("APOSTROPHE",).Seq, ("LATIN SMALL LETTER O",).Seq, ("LATIN SMALL LETTER H",).Seq)␤» 

    (Cool) method unimatch

    Defined as:

    multi sub unimatch(Str:D $str|c)
    multi unimatch(Int:D $codeStringy:D $pvalnameStringy:D $propname = $pvalname)

    Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

    say unimatch 'A''Latin';           # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say unimatch 'A''Latin''Script'# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say unimatch 'A''Ll';              # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Cool) routine chop

    Defined as:

    sub chop(Str(Cool))
    method chop()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

    say 'perl'.chop;                        # OUTPUT: «per␤» 

    (Cool) routine chomp

    Defined as:

    sub chomp(Str(Cool))
    method chomp()

    Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

    say 'ab'.chomp.chars;                   # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
    say "a\n".chomp.chars;                  # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

    (Cool) routine substr

    Defined as:

    sub substr(Str(Cool$str$from$chars?)
    method substr($from$chars?)

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns the string starting from offset $from. If $chars is supplied, at most $chars characters are returned.

    say 'zenith'.substr(2);         # OUTPUT: «nith␤» 
    say 'zenith'.substr(03);      # OUTPUT: «zen␤» 
     
    # works on non-strings too: 
    say 20151224.substr(6);         # OUTPUT: «24␤» 
     
    # sub form: 
    say substr "zenith"03;      # OUTPUT: «zen␤» 

    If the $from parameter is a Callable, it is called with the number of chars in the string as argument. This allows easy indexing relative to the end:

    say 20151224.substr(*-2);       # OUTPUT: «24␤» 

    (Cool) routine ords

    Defined as:

    sub ords(Str(Cool$str)
    method ords()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

    say "Camelia".ords;              # OUTPUT: «67 97 109 101 108 105 97␤» 
    say ords 10;                     # OUTPUT: «49 48␤» 

    This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs.

    (Cool) routine chrs

    Defined as:

    sub chrs(*@codepoints --> Str:D)
    method chrs()

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

    say <67 97 109 101 108 105 97>.chrs;   # OUTPUT: «Camelia␤» 

    This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

    (Cool) routine split

    Defined as:

    multi sub    split(  Str:D $delimiterStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
    multi sub    split(Regex:D $delimiterStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
    multi sub    split(@delimitersStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
    multi method split(  Str:D $delimiter$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
    multi method split(Regex:D $delimiter$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
    multi method split(@delimiters$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)

    Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

    If $delimiter is a string, it is searched for literally and not treated as a regex. You can also provide multiple delimiters by specifying them as a list; mixing Cool and Regex objects is OK.

    say split(';'"a;b;c").perl;               # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c")␤» 
    say split(';'"a;b;c"2).perl;            # OUTPUT: «("a", "b;c").Seq␤» 
     
    say split(';'"a;b;c,d").perl;             # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c,d")␤» 
    say split(/\;/"a;b;c,d").perl;            # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c,d")␤» 
    say split(/<[;,]>/"a;b;c,d").perl;        # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c", "d")␤» 
     
    say split(['a'/b+/4], '1a2bb345').perl# OUTPUT: «("1", "2", "3", "5")␤» 

    By default, split omits the matches, and returns a list of only those parts of the string that did not match. Specifying one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs changes that. Think of the matches as a list that is interleaved with the non-matching parts.

    The :v interleaves the values of that list, which will be either Match objects, if a Regex was used as a matcher in the split, or Str objects, if a Cool was used as matcher. If multiple delimiters are specified, Match objects will be generated for all of them, unless all of the delimiters are Cool.

    say 'abc'.split(/b/:v);               # OUTPUT: «(a 「b」 c)␤» 
    say 'abc'.split('b':v);               # OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤» 

    :k interleaves the keys, that is, the indexes:

    say 'abc'.split(/b/:k);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 c)␤» 

    :kv adds both indexes and matches:

    say 'abc'.split(/b/:kv);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 「b」 c)␤» 

    and :p adds them as Pairs, using the same types for values as :v does:

    say 'abc'.split(/b/:p);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 => 「b」 c)␤» 
    say 'abc'.split('b':p);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 => b c)␤» 

    You can only use one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs in a single call to split.

    Note that empty chunks are not removed from the result list. For that behavior, use the `:skip-empty` named argument:

    say ("f,,b,c,d".split: /","/             ).perl;  # OUTPUT: «("f", "", "b", "c", "d")␤» 
    say ("f,,b,c,d".split: /","/:skip-empty).perl;  # OUTPUT: «("f", "b", "c", "d")␤» 

    See also: comb.

    (Cool) routine lines

    Defined as:

    sub lines(Str(Cool))
    method lines()

    Coerces the invocant (and in sub form, the argument) to Str, decomposes it into lines (with the newline characters stripped), and returns the list of lines.

    say lines("a\nb\n").join('|');          # OUTPUT: «a|b␤» 
    say "some\nmore\nlines".lines.elems;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

    This method can be used as part of an IO::Path to process a file line-by-line, since IO::Path objects inherit from Cool, e.g.:

    for 'huge-csv'.IO.lines -> $line {
        # Do something with $line 
    }
     
    # or if you'll be processing later 
    my @lines = 'huge-csv'.IO.lines;

    Without any arguments, sub lines operates on $*ARGFILES, which defaults to $*IN in the absence of any filenames.

    To modify values in place use is copy to force a writable container.

    for $*IN.lines -> $_ is copy { s/(\w+)/{$0 ~ $0}/.say }

    (Cool) method words

    Defined as:

    method words(Int() $limit)

    Coerces the invocant to Str, and returns a list of words that make up the string (and if $limit is supplied, only the first $limit words).

    say 'The quick brown fox'.words.join('|');      # OUTPUT: «The|quick|brown|fox␤» 
    say 'The quick brown fox'.words(2).join('|');   # OUTPUT: «The|quick␤» 

    Only whitespace counts as word boundaries

    say "isn't, can't".words.join('|');             # OUTPUT: «isn't,|can't␤» 

    (Cool) routine comb

    Defined as:

    multi sub comb(Regex $matcherStr(Cool$input$limit = * --> Seq)
    multi method comb(Regex $matcher$limit = * --> Seq)

    Returns all (or if supplied, at most $limit) matches of the invocant (method form) or the second argument (sub form) against the Regex as a list of strings.

    say "6 or 12".comb(/\d+/).join("");           # OUTPUT: «6, 12␤» 

    (Cool) method contains

    multi method contains(Cool:D: Str(Cool$needleCool $start? --> Bool:D)

    Returns True if the invocant contains the $needle at any position within the string. If $start is provided skip as many characters.

    say "Hello, World".contains('hello');      # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say "Hello, World".contains(',');          # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Cool) routine index

    Defined as:

    multi sub    index(Str(Cool$sStr:D $needleInt(Cool$startpos = 0 --> Int)
    multi method index(Str(Cool$needleInt(Cool$startpos = 0 --> Int)

    Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found.

    See the documentation in type Str for examples.

    (Cool) routine rindex

    Defined as:

    multi sub    rindex(Str(Cool$haystackStr(Cool$needleInt(Cool$startpos = $haystack.chars)
    multi method rindex(Str(Cool$haystack: Str(Cool$needleInt(Cool$startpos = $haystack.chars)

    Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found.

    See the documentation in type Str for examples.

    (Cool) routine match

    Defined as:

    multi method match(Cool:D: $target*%adverbs)

    Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it.

    (Cool) method fmt

    Defined as:

    method fmt($format = '%s' --> Str:D)

    Uses $format to return a formatted representation of the invocant.

    For more information about formats strings, see sprintf.

    say 11.fmt('This Int equals %03d');               # OUTPUT: «This Int equals 011␤» 
    say '16'.fmt('Hexadecimal %x');                   # OUTPUT: «Hexadecimal 10␤» 

    (Cool) routine roots

    Defined as:

    multi sub roots(Numeric(Cool$xInt(Cool$n)
    multi method roots(Int(Cool$n)

    Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

    For example

    my $original = 16;
    my @roots = $original.roots(4);
    say @roots;
     
    for @roots -> $r {
        say abs($r ** 4 - $original);
    }

    produces this output:

    2+0i 1.22464679914735e-16+2i -2+2.44929359829471e-16i -3.67394039744206e-16-2i
    1.77635683940025e-15
    4.30267170434156e-15
    8.03651692704705e-15
    1.04441561648202e-14

    (Cool) method IO

    Defined as:

    method IO(--> IO::Path:D)

    Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

    .say for '.'.IO.dir;        # gives a directory listing 

    (Cool) routine EVAL

    Defined as:

    sub EVAL(Cool $code:$lang = { ... })

    Coerces the invocant to Str.

    This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

    use MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL;
    use MONKEY;  # shortcut that turns on all MONKEY pragmas 
    use Test;
     
    # any of the above allows: 
    EVAL "say { 5 + 5 }";   # OUTPUT: «10␤» 

    Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

    my $answer = 42;
    EVAL 'say $answer;';    # OUTPUT: «42␤» 

    However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

    EVAL 'my $lives = 9'say $lives;   # error, $lives not declared 

    Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

    module M {
        EVAL 'our $answer = 42'
    }
    say $M::answer;         # OUTPUT: «42␤» 

    And also the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

    sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
        @a.sum / @a.elems
    }
    EVAL 'say 2 mean 6 mean 4';     # OUTPUT: «4␤» 

    An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

    sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
        @a.sum / @a.elems
    }
    say EVAL 'say 1; 2 mean 6 mean 4';         # OUTPUT: «1␤4␤» 

    EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

    EVAL "use v5.20; say 'Hello from perl5!'":lang<Perl5>;

    (Cool) routine EVALFILE

    Defined as:

    sub EVALFILE(Cool $filename:$lang = { ... })

    Slurps the specified file and evaluates it. Behaves the same way as EVAL with regard to both scoping and the $lang parameter. Evaluates to the value produced by the final statement in the file.

    EVALFILE "foo.p6";

    Routines supplied by class Any

    IO::Path::Cygwin inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

    (Any) method ACCEPTS

    Defined as:

    multi method ACCEPTS(Any:D: Mu $other)

    Usage:

    EXPR.ACCEPTS(EXPR);

    Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

    Many built-in types override this for more specific comparisons

    (Any) method any

    Defined as:

    method any(--> Junction:D)

    Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

    say so 2 == <1 2 3>.any;        # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say so 5 == <1 2 3>.any;        # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Any) method all

    Defined as:

    method all(--> Junction:D)

    Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

    say so 1 < <2 3 4>.all;         # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say so 3 < <2 3 4>.all;         # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Any) method one

    Defined as:

    method one(--> Junction:D)

    Interprets the invocant as a list and creates a one-Junction from it.

    say so 1 == (123).one;      # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say so 1 == (121).one;      # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Any) method none

    Defined as:

    method none(--> Junction:D)

    Interprets the invocant as a list and creates a none-Junction from it.

    say so 1 == (123).none;     # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say so 4 == (123).none;     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Any) method list

    Defined as:

    method list(--> List:D)

    Interprets the invocant as a list, and returns that List.

    say 42.list.^name;           # OUTPUT: «List␤» 
    say 42.list.elems;           # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

    (Any) method push

    Defined as:

    method push(|values --> Positional:D)

    The method push is defined for undefined invocants and allows for autovivifying undefined to an empty Array, unless the undefined value implements Positional already. The argument provided will then be pushed into the newly created Array.

    my %h;
    dd %h<a>;      # Any (and therefore undefined) 
    %h<a>.push(1); # .push on Any 
    dd %h;         # «Hash %h = {:a($[1])}␤» # please note the Array 

    (Any) routine reverse

    Defined as:

    multi sub    reverse(*@list  --> Seq:D)
    multi method reverse(List:D: --> Seq:D)

    Returns a Seq say reverse ^10; # OUTPUT: «(9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0)␤»

    (Any) method sort

    Sorts iterables with infix:<cmp> or given code object and returns a new List.

    Examples:

    say <b c a>.sort;                           # OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤» 
    say 'bca'.comb.sort.join;                   # OUTPUT: «abc␤» 
    say 'bca'.comb.sort({$^b cmp $^a}).join;    # OUTPUT: «cba␤» 
    say '231'.comb.sort(&infix:«<=>»).join;     # OUTPUT: «123␤» 

    (Any) method map

    Defined as:

    multi method map(\SELF: &block;; :$label:$item)
    multi method map(HyperIterable:D: &block;; :$label)

    map will iterate over the invocant and apply the number of positional parameters of the code object from the invocant per call. The returned values of the code object will become elements of the returned Seq.

    The :$label and :$item are useful only internally, since for loops get converted to maps. The :$label takes an existing Label to label the .map's loop with and :$item controls whether the iteration will occur over (SELF,) (if :$item is set) or SELF.

    (Any) method deepmap

    Defined as:

    method deepmap(&block --> Listis nodal

    deepmap will apply &block to each element and return a new List with the return values of &block, unless the element does the Iterable role. For those elements deepmap will descend recursively into the sublist.

    dd [[1,2,3],[[4,5],6,7]].deepmap(*+1);
    # OUTPUT: «[[2, 3, 4], [[5, 6], 7, 8]]␤» 

    (Any) method duckmap

    Defined as:

    method duckmap(&blockis rw is nodal

    duckmap will apply &block on each element and return a new list with defined return values of the block. For undefined return values, duckmap will try to descend into the element if that element implements Iterable.

    my @a = [1,[2,3],4];
    dd @a.duckmap({ $_ ~~ Int ?? $_++ !! Any });
    # OUTPUT: «(1, (2, 3), 4)␤» 

    (Any) method flat

    Defined as:

    method flat(--> Seq:Dis nodal

    Interprets the invocant as a list, flattens it, and returns that list. Please note that .flat will not solve the halting problem for you. If you flat an infinite list .flat may return that infinite list, eating all your RAM in the process.

    say ((12), (3)).elems;        # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
    say ((12), (3)).flat.elems;   # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

    Please note that flat does not recurse into sub lists. You have to recurse by hand or reconsider your data structures. A single level of nesting can often be handled with destructuring in signatures. For deeper structures you may consider gather/take to create a lazy list.

    my @a = [[1,2,3],[[4,5],6,7]];
    say gather deepmap *.take@a# OUTPUT: «(1 2 3 4 5 6 7)␤» 

    (Any) method eager

    Defined as:

    method eager(--> Seq:Dis nodal

    Interprets the invocant as a list, evaluates it eagerly, and returns that list.

    say (1..10).eager;              # OUTPUT: «(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)␤» 

    (Any) method elems

    Defined as:

    method elems(--> Int:Dis nodal

    Interprets the invocant as a list, and returns the number of elements in the list.

    say 42.elems;                   # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
    say <a b c>.elems;              # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

    (Any) method end

    method end(--> Any:Dis nodal

    Interprets the invocant as a list, and returns the last index of that list.

    say 6.end;                      # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
    say <a b c>.end;                # OUTPUT: «2␤» 

    (Any) method pairup

    Defined as:

    method pairup(--> Seq:Dis nodal

    Interprets the invocant as a list, and constructs a list of pairs from it, in the same way that assignment to a Hash does. That is, it takes two consecutive elements and constructs a pair from them, unless the item in the key position already is a pair (in which case the pair is passed is passed through, and the next list item, if any, is considered to be a key again).

    say (=> 1'b''c').pairup.perl;     # OUTPUT: «(:a(1), :b("c")).Seq␤» 

    (Any) sub exit

    Defined as:

    sub exit(Int() $status = 0)

    Exits the current process with return code $status.

    (Any) sub item

    Defined as:

    proto sub item(|) is pure
    multi sub item(\x)
    multi sub item(|c)
    multi sub item(Mu $a)

    Forces given object to be evaluated in item context and returns the value of it.

    say item([1,2,3]).perl;              # OUTPUT: «$[1, 2, 3]␤» 
    say item({ apple => 10 }).perl;      # OUTPUT: «${:apple(10)}␤» 
    say item("abc").perl;                # OUTPUT: «"abc"␤» 

    You can also use $ as item contextualizer.

    say $[1,2,3].perl;                   # OUTPUT: «$[1, 2, 3]␤» 
    say $("abc").perl;                   # OUTPUT: «"abc"␤» 

    (Any) method Array

    Defined as:

    method Array(--> Array:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Array.

    (Any) method List

    Defined as:

    method List(--> List:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to List.

    (Any) method Hash

    Defined as:

    method Hash(--> Hash:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Hash.

    (Any) method hash

    Defined as:

    method hash(--> Hash:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Hash.

    (Any) method Slip

    Defined as:

    method Slip(--> Slip:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Slip.

    (Any) method Map

    Defined as:

    method Map(--> Map:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Map.

    (Any) method Bag

    Defined as:

    method Bag(--> Bag:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Bag, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method BagHash

    Defined as:

    method BagHash(--> BagHash:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to BagHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method Set

    Defined as:

    method Set(--> Set:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Set, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method SetHash

    Defined as:

    method SetHash(--> SetHash:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to SetHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method Mix

    Defined as:

    method Mix(--> Mix:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to Mix, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method MixHash

    Defined as:

    method MixHash(--> MixHash:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant to MixHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

    (Any) method Supply

    Defined as:

    method Supply(--> Supply:Dis nodal

    Coerce the invocant first to a List and then to a Supply.

    (Any) method min

    Defined As:

    multi method min(--> Any:D)
    multi method min(&by --> Any:D)

    Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically smallest element. If a Callable is provided it is called with each element and its smallest return values is returned.

    (Any) method max

    Defined As:

    multi method max(--> Any:D)
    multi method min(&by --> Any:D)

    Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically biggest element. If a Callable is provided it is called with each element and its biggest return values is returned.

    (Any) method minmax

    Defined As:

    multi method minmax(--> List:D)
    multi method minmax(&by --> List:D)

    Returns a list containing the smallest and the biggest element. If a Callable is provided each element is filtered and then numerically compared.

    TODO

    (Any) method minpairs

    Defined As:

    multi method minpairs(Any:D: --> Seq:D)

    Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with minimum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

    <a b c a b c>.minpairs.perl.put# OUTPUT: «(0 => "a", 3 => "a").Seq␤» 
    %(:42a, :75b).minpairs.perl.put# OUTPUT: «(:a(42),).Seq␤» 

    (Any) method maxpairs

    Defined As:

    multi method maxpairs(Any:D: --> Seq:D)

    Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with maximum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

    <a b c a b c>.maxpairs.perl.put# OUTPUT: «(2 => "c", 5 => "c").Seq␤» 
    %(:42a, :75b).maxpairs.perl.put# OUTPUT: «(:b(75),).Seq␤» 

    (Any) method sum

    Defined As:

        method sum(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method keys

    Defined As:

        method keys(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method flatmap

    Defined As:

        method flatmap(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method roll

    Defined As:

        method roll(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method pick

    Defined As:

        method pick(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method head

    Defined As:

        method head(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method tail

    Defined As:

        method tail(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method skip

    Defined As:

        method skip(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method prepend

    Defined As:

        method prepend(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method unshift

    Defined As:

        method unshift(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method first

    Defined As:

        method first(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method unique

    Defined As:

        method unique

    Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.unique on it.

    (Any) method repeated

    Defined As:

        method repeated(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method squish

    Defined As:

        method squish(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method reduce

    Defined As:

        method reduce(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method permutations

    Defined As:

        method permutations(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method categorize

    Defined As:

        method categorize(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method classify

    Defined As:

        method classify(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method produce

    Defined As:

        method produce(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method rotor

    Defined As:

        method rotor(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method pairs

    Defined As:

        method pairs(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method antipairs

    Defined As:

        method antipairs(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method kv

    Defined As:

        method kv(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method tree

    Defined As:

        method tree(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method nl-out

    Defined As:

        method nl-out(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method invert

    Defined As:

        method invert(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method combinations

    Defined As:

        method combinations(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method print-nl

    Defined As:

        method print-nl(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method nodemap

    Defined As:

        method nodemap(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method iterator

    Defined As:

        method iterator(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method grep

    Defined As:

        method grep(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method match

    Defined As:

        method match(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method append

    Defined As:

        method append(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method join

    Defined As:

        method join(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method values

    Defined As:

        method values(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method collate

    Defined As:

        method collate(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method batch

    Defined As:

        method batch(--> TODO)

    TODO

    (Any) method cache

    Defined As:

        method cache(--> TODO)

    TODO

    Routines supplied by class Mu

    IO::Path::Cygwin inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

    (Mu) routine defined

    multi sub    defined(Mu --> Bool:D)
    multi method defined(   --> Bool:D)

    Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

    say Int.defined;                # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say 42.defined;                 # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    Very few types (like Failure) override defined to return False even for instances:

    sub fails() { fail 'oh noe' };
    say fails().defined;            # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Mu) routine isa

    multi method isa(Mu $type     --> Bool:D)
    multi method isa(Str:D $type  --> Bool:D)

    Returns True if the invocant is an instance of class $type, a subset type or a derived class (through inheritance) of $type.

    my $i = 17;
    say $i.isa("Int");   # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say $i.isa(Any);     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    A more idiomatic way to do this is to use the smartmatch operator ~~ instead.

    my $s = "String";
    say $s ~~ Str;       # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Mu) routine does

    method does(Mu $type --> Bool:D)

    Returns True if and only if the invocant conforms to type $type.

    my $d = Date.new('2016-06-03');
    say $d.does(Dateish);             # True    (Date does role Dateish) 
    say $d.does(Any);                 # True    (Date is a subclass of Any) 
    say $d.does(DateTime);            # False   (Date is not a subclass of DateTime) 

    Using the smart match operator ~~ is a more idiomatic alternative.

    my $d = Date.new('2016-06-03');
    say $d ~~ Dateish;                # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say $d ~~ Any;                    # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say $d ~~ DateTime;               # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    (Mu) routine Bool

    multi sub    Bool(Mu --> Bool:D)
    multi method Bool(   --> Bool:D)

    Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

    Many built-in types override this to be False for empty collections, the empty string or numerical zeros

    say Mu.Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say Mu.new.Bool;                # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say [123].Bool;             # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say [].Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say { 'hash' => 'full' }.Bool;  # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say {}.Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say "".Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say 0.Bool;                     # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
    say 1.Bool;                     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say "0".Bool;                   # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Mu) method Str

    multi method Str(--> Str)

    Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable. Method Str warns on type objects, and produces the empty string.

    say Mu.Str;                     # Use of uninitialized value of type Mu in string context. 

    (Mu) routine gist

    multi sub    gist(Mu --> Str)
    multi method gist(   --> Str)

    Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans. As such lists will be truncated at 100 elements. Use .perl to get all elements.

    The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the perl method for defined invocants, and returns the type name in parenthesis for type object invocants. Many built-in classes override the case of instances to something more specific that may truncate output.

    gist is the method that say calls implicitly, so say $something and say $something.gist generally produce the same output.

    say Mu.gist;        # OUTPUT: «(Mu)␤» 
    say Mu.new.gist;    # OUTPUT: «Mu.new␤» 

    (Mu) routine perl

    multi sub    perl(Mu --> Str)
    multi method perl(   --> Str)

    Returns a Perlish representation of the object (i.e., can usually be re-evaluated with EVAL to regenerate the object). The exact output of perl is implementation specific, since there are generally many ways to write a Perl expression that produces a particular value

    (Mu) method item

    method item(Mu \item:is raw

    Forces the invocant to be evaluated in item context and returns the value of it.

    say [1,2,3].item.perl;         # OUTPUT: «$[1, 2, 3]␤» 
    say { apple => 10 }.item.perl# OUTPUT: «${:apple(10)}␤» 
    say "abc".item.perl;           # OUTPUT: «"abc"␤» 

    (Mu) method self

    method self(--> Mu)

    Returns the object it is called on.

    (Mu) method clone

    method clone(*%twiddles)

    Creates a shallow clone of the invocant. Alternative values for public attributes can be provided via named arguments with names matching the attributes' names.

    class Point2D {
        has ($.x$.y);
        multi method gist(Point2D:D:{
            "Point($.x$.y)";
        }
    }
     
    my $p = Point2D.new(x => 2=> 3);
     
    say $p;                     # OUTPUT: «Point(2, 3)␤» 
    say $p.clone(=> -5);      # OUTPUT: «Point(2, -5)␤» 

    (Mu) method new

    multi method new(*%attrinit)

    Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

    Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

    new triggers an object construction mechanism that calls submethods named BUILD in each class of an inheritance hierarchy, if they exist. See the documentation on object construction for more information.

    (Mu) method bless

    method bless(*%attrinit --> Mu:D)

    Lower-level object construction method than new.

    Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

    You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

    class Point {
        has $.x;
        has $.y;
        multi method new($x$y{
            self.bless(:$x:$y);
        }
    }
    my $p = Point.new(-11);

    (Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

    (Mu) method CREATE

    method CREATE(--> Mu:D)

    Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

    say Mu.CREATE.defined;  # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Mu) method print

    multi method print(--> Bool:D)

    Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without adding a newline at end.

    "abc\n".print;          # RESULT: «abc␤» 

    (Mu) method put

    multi method put(--> Bool:D)

    Prints value to $*OUT, adding a newline at end, and if necessary, stringifying non-Str object using the .Str method.

    "abc".put;              # RESULT: «abc␤» 

    (Mu) method say

    multi method say(--> Bool:D)

    Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .gist method with newline at end. To produce machine readable output use .put.

    say 42;                 # OUTPUT: «42␤» 

    (Mu) method ACCEPTS

    multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

    ACCEPTS is the method that smart matching with the infix ~~ operator and given/when invokes on the right-hand side (the matcher).

    The Mu:U multi performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

    say 42 ~~ Mu;           # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say 42 ~~ Int;          # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
    say 42 ~~ Str;          # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

    Note that there is no multi for defined invocants; this is to allow autothreading of junctions, which happens as a fallback mechanism when no direct candidate is available to dispatch to.

    (Mu) method WHICH

    multi method WHICH(--> ObjAt:D)

    Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.

    say 42.WHICH eq 42.WHICH;       # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

    (Mu) method WHERE

    method WHERE(--> Int)

    Returns an Int representing the memory address of the object.

    (Mu) method WHY

    multi method WHY()

    Returns the attached Pod value. For instance,

    sub cast(Spell $s)
    #= Initiate a specified spell normally 
    #= (do not use for class 7 spells) 
    {
    do-raw-magic($s);
    }
    say &cast.WHY;

    prints

    Initiate a specified spell normally (do not use for class 7 spells)

    See the documentation specification for details about attaching Pod to variables, classes, functions, methods, etc.

    (Mu) trait is export

    multi sub trait_mod:<is>(Mu:U \type:$export!)

    Marks a type as being exported, that is, available to external users.

    my class SomeClass is export { }

    A user of a module or class automatically gets all the symbols imported that are marked as is export.

    See Exporting and Selective Importing Modules for more details.

    (Mu) method return

    method return()

    The method return will stop execution of a subroutine or method, run all relevant phasers and provide invocant as a return value to the caller. If a return type constraint is provided it will be checked unless the return value is Nil. A control exception is raised and can be caught with CONTROL.

    sub f { (1|2|3).return };
    dd f(); # OUTPUT: «any(1, 2, 3)␤» 

    (Mu) method return-rw

    Same as method return except that return-rw returns a writable container to the invocant (see more details here: return-rw).

    (Mu) method emit

    method emit()

    Emits the invocant into the enclosing supply or react block.

    react { whenever supply { .emit for "foo"42.5 } {
        say "received {.^name} ($_)";
    }}
     
    # OUTPUT: 
    # received Str (foo) 
    # received Int (42) 
    # received Rat (0.5) 

    (Mu) method take

    method take()

    Returns the invocant in the enclosing gather block.

    sub insert($sep+@list{
        gather for @list {
            FIRST .takenext;
            take slip $sep.item
        }
    }
     
    say insert ':', <a b c>;
    # OUTPUT: «(a : b : c)␤» 

    (Mu) routine take

    sub take(\item)

    Takes the given item and passes it to the enclosing gather block.

    #| randomly select numbers for lotto 
    my $num-selected-numbers = 6;
    my $max-lotto-numbers = 49;
    gather for ^$num-selected-numbers {
        take (1 .. $max-lotto-numbers).pick(1);
    }.say;    # six random values 

    (Mu) routine take-rw

    sub take-rw(\item)

    Returns the given item to the enclosing gather block, without introducing a new container.

    my @a = 1...3;
    sub f(@list){ gather for @list { take-rw $_ } };
    for f(@a{ $_++ };
    say @a;
    # OUTPUT: «[2 3 4]␤» 

    (Mu) method so

    method so()

    Returns a Bool value representing the logical non-negation of an expression. One can use this method similarly to the English sentence: "If that is so, then do this thing". For instance,

    my @args = <-a -e -b -v>;
    my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
    if $verbose-selected.so {
        say "Verbose option detected in arguments";
    } # OUTPUT: «Verbose option detected in arguments␤» 

    (Mu) method not

    method not()

    Returns a Bool value representing the logical negation of an expression. Thus it is the opposite of so.

    my @args = <-a -e -b>;
    my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
    if $verbose-selected.not {
        say "Verbose option not present in arguments";
    } # OUTPUT: «Verbose option not present in arguments␤» 

    Since there is also a prefix version of not, the above code reads better like so:

    my @args = <-a -e -b>;
    my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
    if not $verbose-selected {
        say "Verbose option not present in arguments";
    } # OUTPUT: «Verbose option not present in arguments␤»