# class IO::Path::Unix

## method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## (IO::Path) method dirname

Defined as:

Returns the directory name portion of the path object. That is, it returns the path excluding the volume and the base name.

## (IO::Path) method volume

Defined as:

Returns the volume portion of the path object. On Unix system, this is always the empty string.

## (IO::Path) method parts

Defined as:

Returns a Map with the keys volume, dirname, basename whose values are the same as available via methods .volume, .dirname, and .basename respectively.

## (IO::Path) method perl

Defined as:

Returns a string that, when given passed through EVAL gives the original invocant back.

## (IO::Path) method succ

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.succ on it.

## (IO::Path) method open

Defined as:

Opens the path as a file; the named options control the mode, and are the same as the open function accepts.

## (IO::Path) method pred

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path constructed from the invocant, with .basename changed by calling Str.pred on it.

## (IO::Path) method watch

Defined as:

Equivalent to calling IO::Notification.watch-path with the invocant as the argument.

## (IO::Path) method is-absolute

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is an absolute path, and False otherwise.

Note that on Windows a path that starts with a slash or backslash is still considered absolute even if no volume was given, as it is absolute for that particular volume:

## (IO::Path) method is-relative

Defined as:

Returns True if the path is a relative path, and False otherwise. Windows caveats for .is-absolute apply.

Defined as:

## (IO::Path) method spurt

Defined as:

Opens the file path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows:

• :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob. • :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file.

Defined as:

Creates a new directory. See mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created. Creates parent directories, as needed. That is, mkdir "foo/bar" will create foo if it does not exist. ## (IO::Path) routine rmdir Defined as: Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories. Method form returns True on success and throws an exception of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted. To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module. ## (IO::Path) method chmod Defined as: Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod.

The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number:

Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number):

## (IO::Path) routine rename

Defined as:

Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move.

## (IO::Path) routine copy

Defined as:

Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

## (IO::Path) routine move

Defined as:

Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not.

## (IO::Path) method Numeric

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

## (IO::Path) method Int

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

Defined as:

Create a new symbolic link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Symlink if the symbolic link could not be created. If $target does not exist, creates a dangling symbolic link. To create a hard link, see link. Note: on Windows, creation of symbolic links may require escalated privileges. Defined as: Create a new hard link $link to existing $target. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Link if the symbolic link could not be created. To create a symbolic link, see symlink. Defined as: Delete all specified ordinary files, links, or symbolic links. See rmdir to delete directories. The subroutine form returns the names of the files that were successfully deleted. The method form returns True on success, or fails with X::IO::Unlink if the operation could not be completed. ## (IO::Path) method IO Defined as: Returns the invocant. ## (IO::Path) method SPEC Defined as: Returns the IO::Spec object that was (implicitly) specified at object creation time. ## (IO::Path) method modified Returns an Instant object indicating when the file was last modified. ## (IO::Path) method accessed Return an Instant object representing the timestamp when the file was last accessed. Note: depending on how the filesystem was mounted, the last accessed time may not update on each access to the file, but only on the first access after modifications. ## (IO::Path) method changed Returns an Instant object indicating the file or directory was last changed. ## (IO::Path) method mode Return an IntStr object representing the POSIX permissions of a file. The Str part of the result is the octal representation of the file permission, like the form accepted by the chmod(1) utility. The result of this can be used in the other methods that take a mode as an argument. # Methods supplied by role IO IO::Path::Unix inherits from class IO::Path, which does role IO, which provides the following methods: ## (IO) sub chdir Defined as: Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

• :d — check .d returns True

• :r — check .r returns True

• :w — check .w returns True

• :x — check .x returns True

• By default, only :d test is performed.

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

Use indir instead.

## (IO) sub &*chdir

Defined as:

Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path and sets the process's current directory to the value of $path.absolute. NOTE: that in most cases, you want to use chdir routine instead. Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object.

Note that unlike regular chdir, there are no arguments to specify which file tests to perform.

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

Use the following, instead; or see indir if you do not need to change process's current directory:

Defined as:

Coerces all @filenames to IO::Path and calls IO::Path.chmod with $mode on them. Returns a List containing a subset of @filenames for which chmod was successfully executed. ## (IO) sub indir Defined as: Takes Callable &code and executes it after locally (to &code) changing $*CWD variable to an IO::Path object based on $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. If $path is relative, it will be turned into an absolute path, even if an IO::Path object was given. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). The $*CWD outside of the &code is not affected, even if &code explicitly assigns a new value to $*CWD.

Returns the return value of &code on success. On failure to successfully change $*CWD, returns Failure. WARNING: keep in mind that lazily evaluated things might end up NOT having the $*CWD set by indir in their dynamic scope by the time they're actually evaluated. Either ensure the generators have their $*CWD set or eagerly evaluate them before returning the results from indir: The routine's $path argument can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

• :d — check .d returns True

• :r — check .r returns True

• :w — check .w returns True

• :x — check .x returns True

• By default, only :d test is performed.

Defined as:

## (IO) sub say

Defined as:

Prints the "gist" of given objects. Same as put, except coerces non-Str arguments using .gist method.

NOTE: the .gist method of some objects, such as Lists, returns only partial information about the object (hence the "gist"). If you mean to print textual information, you most likely want to use put instead.

Defined as:

## (Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

## (Cool) method exp

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

## (Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

## (Cool) routine round

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

## (Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine ceiling

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

## (Cool) routine truncate

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

## (Cool) routine ord

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

The inverse operation is chr.

Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

## (Cool) routine chr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

The inverse operation is ord.

Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

## (Cool) routine chars

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

## (Cool) routine codes

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

## (Cool) routine flip

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

## (Cool) routine trim

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine trim-trailing

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

## (Cool) routine lc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

## (Cool) routine uc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

## (Cool) routine fc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

## (Cool) routine tc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

## (Cool) routine tclc

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case..

Defined as:

## (Cool) method uniprop

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties.

## (Cool) method uniprops

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop

## (Cool) method uniname

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant / first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints.

## (Cool) method uninames

Defined as:

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

## (Cool) method unimatch

Defined as:

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

## (Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

## (Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

## (Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns the string starting from offset $from. If $chars is supplied, at most $chars characters are returned. If the $from parameter is a Callable, it is called with the number of chars in the string as argument. This allows easy indexing relative to the end:

## (Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs.

## (Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

## (Cool) routine split

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

## (Cool) method contains

Returns True if the invocant contains the $needle at any position within the string. If$start is provided skip as many characters.

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to Str, and searches for $needle in the string starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found. See the documentation in type Str for examples. ## (Cool) routine rindex Defined as: Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

## (Cool) routine match

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it.

Defined as:

# Routines supplied by class Any

IO::Path::Unix inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

Defined as:

Usage:

## (Any) method deepmap

Defined as:

deepmap will apply &block to each element and return a new List with the return values of &block, unless the element does the Iterable role. For those elements deepmap will descend recursively into the sublist.

## (Any) method duckmap

Defined as:

duckmap will apply &block on each element and return a new list with defined return values of the block. For undefined return values, duckmap will try to descend into the element if that element implements Iterable.

## (Any) method nodemap

Defined as:

nodemap will apply &block to each element and return a new List with the return values of &block. In contrast to deepmap it will not descend recursively into sublists if it finds elements which does the Iterable role.

The examples above would have produced the exact same results if we had used map instead of nodemap. The difference between the two lies in the fact that map flattens out slips while nodemap doesn't.

## (Any) method flat

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list, flattens non-containerized Iterables into a flat list, and returns that list. Keep in mind Map and Hash types are Iterable and so will be flattened into lists of pairs.

Note that Arrays containerize their elements by default, and so flat will not flatten them. You can use hyper method call to call .List method on all the inner Iterables and so de-containerize them, so that flat can flatten them:

For more fine-tuned options, see deepmap, duckmap, and signature destructuring

## (Any) method eager

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list, evaluates it eagerly, and returns that list.

## (Any) method elems

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list, and returns the number of elements in the list.

## (Any) method end

Interprets the invocant as a list, and returns the last index of that list.

## (Any) method pairup

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a list, and constructs a list of pairs from it, in the same way that assignment to a Hash does. That is, it takes two consecutive elements and constructs a pair from them, unless the item in the key position already is a pair (in which case the pair is passed is passed through, and the next list item, if any, is considered to be a key again).

Defined as:

## (Any) method Array

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Array.

## (Any) method List

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to List.

## (Any) method Hash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Hash.

## (Any) method hash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Hash.

## (Any) method Slip

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Slip.

## (Any) method Map

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Map.

## (Any) method Bag

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Bag, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method BagHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to BagHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Set

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Set, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method SetHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to SetHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Mix

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to Mix, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method MixHash

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant to MixHash, whereby Positionals are treated as lists of values.

## (Any) method Supply

Defined as:

Coerce the invocant first to a List and then to a Supply.

## (Any) method min

Defined As:

Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically smallest element. If a Callable positional argument is provided it is called with each element and its smallest return values is returned.

## (Any) method max

Defined As:

Coerces to Iterable and returns the numerically biggest element. If a Callable positional argument is provided it is called with each element and its biggest return values is returned.

## (Any) method minmax

Defined As:

Returns a list containing the smallest and the biggest element. If a Callable positional argument is provided each element is filtered and then numerically compared.

## (Any) method minpairs

Defined As:

Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with minimum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

## (Any) method maxpairs

Defined As:

Calls .pairs and returns a Seq with all of the Pairs with maximum values, as judged by the cmp operator:

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## (Any) method unique

Defined As:

Treats the Any as a 1-item list and uses List.unique on it.

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# Routines supplied by class Mu

IO::Path::Unix inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

## (Mu) routine defined

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Very few types (like Failure) override defined to return False even for instances:

## (Mu) routine isa

Returns True if the invocant is an instance of class $type, a subset type or a derived class (through inheritance) of $type.

A more idiomatic way to do this is to use the smartmatch operator ~~ instead.

## (Mu) method ACCEPTS

ACCEPTS is the method that smart matching with the infix ~~ operator and given/when invokes on the right-hand side (the matcher).

The Mu:U multi performs a type check. Returns True if \$other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

Note that there is no multi for defined invocants; this is to allow autothreading of junctions, which happens as a fallback mechanism when no direct candidate is available to dispatch to.

## (Mu) method WHICH

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.

## (Mu) method WHERE

Returns an Int representing the memory address of the object.

## (Mu) method WHY

Returns the attached Pod value. For instance,

prints

See the documentation specification for details about attaching Pod to variables, classes, functions, methods, etc.

## (Mu) trait is export

Marks a type as being exported, that is, available to external users.

A user of a module or class automatically gets all the symbols imported that are marked as is export.

See Exporting and Selective Importing Modules for more details.

## (Mu) method return

The method return will stop execution of a subroutine or method, run all relevant phasers and provide invocant as a return value to the caller. If a return type constraint is provided it will be checked unless the return value is Nil. A control exception is raised and can be caught with CONTROL.

## (Mu) method return-rw

Same as method return except that return-rw returns a writable container to the invocant (see more details here: return-rw).

## (Mu) method emit

Emits the invocant into the enclosing supply or react block.

## (Mu) method take

Returns the invocant in the enclosing gather block.

## (Mu) routine take

Takes the given item and passes it to the enclosing gather block.

## (Mu) routine take-rw

Returns the given item to the enclosing gather block, without introducing a new container.

## (Mu) method so

Returns a Bool value representing the logical non-negation of an expression. One can use this method similarly to the English sentence: "If that is so, then do this thing". For instance,

## (Mu) method not

Returns a Bool value representing the logical negation of an expression. Thus it is the opposite of so.

Since there is also a prefix version of not, the above code reads better like so: