class Promise

Status/result of an asynchronous computation

my enum PromiseStatus (:Planned(0), :Kept(1), :Broken(2));
class Promise {}

A Promise is used to handle the result of a computation that might not have finished. It allows the user to execute code once the computation is done (with the then method), execution after a time delay (with in), combining promises, and waiting for results.

my $p = Promise.start({ sleep 242});
$p.then({ say .result });   # will print 42 once the block finished 
say $p.status;              # OUTPUT: «Planned␤» 
$p.result;                  # waits for the computation to finish 
say $p.status;              # OUTPUT: «Kept␤» 

There are two typical scenarios for using promises. The first is to use a factory method (start, in, at, anyof, allof, kept, broken) on the type object; those will make sure that the promise is automatically kept or broken for you, and you can't call break or keep on these promises yourself.

The second is to create your promises yourself with Promise.new. If you want to ensure that only your code can keep or break the promise, you can use the vow method to get a unique handle, and call keep or break on it:

sub async-get-with-promise($user-agent$url{
    my $p = Promise.new;
    my $v = $p.vow;
 
    # do an asynchronous call on a fictive user agent, 
    # and return the promise: 
    $user-agent.async-get($url,
            on-error => -> $error {
                $v.break($error);
            },
            on-success => -> $response {
                $v.keep($response);
            }
    );
    return $p;
}

Further examples can be found in the concurrency page.

Methods

method start

method start(Promise:U: &code:$scheduler = $*SCHEDULER --> Promise:D)

Creates a new Promise that runs the given code object. The promise will be kept when the code terminates normally, or broken if it throws an exception. The return value or exception can be inspected with the result method.

The scheduler that handles this promise can be passed as a named argument.

There is also a statement prefix start that provides syntactic sugar for this method:

# these two are equivalent: 
my $p1 = Promise.start({ ;#`( do something here ) });
my $p2 = start { ;#`( do something here ) };

As of 6.d language, start statement prefix used in sink context will automatically attach an exceptions handler. If an exception occurs in the given code, it will be printed and the program will then exit, like if it were thrown without any start statement prefixes involved.

use v6.c;
start { die }sleep ⅓; say "hello"# OUTPUT: «hello␤» 
use v6.d.PREVIEW;
start { die }sleep ⅓; say "hello";
# OUTPUT: Died 
# in block  at -e line 1 

If you wish to avoid this behaviour, use start in non-sink context or catch the exception yourself:

# Don't sink it: 
my $ = start { die }sleep ⅓; say "hello"# OUTPUT: «hello␤» 
 
# Catch yourself: 
start { dieCATCH { default { say "caught" } } };
sleep ⅓;
say "hello";
# OUTPUT: «caught␤hello␤» 

This behaviour exists only syntaxically and not as part of method sink on Promise object, thus sinking a Promise object or having a start block as return value of a routine won't trigger this behaviour.

method in

method in(Promise:U: $seconds:$scheduler = $*SCHEDULER --> Promise:D)

Creates a new Promise that will be kept in $seconds seconds, or later.

my $proc = Proc::Async.new('perl6''-e''sleep 10; warn "end"');
 
my $result = await Promise.anyof(
    my $promise = $proc.start,  # may or may not work in time 
    Promise.in(5).then: {       # fires after 5 seconds no matter what 
        unless $promise {       # don't do anything if we were successful 
            note 'timeout';
            $proc.kill;
        }
    }
).then: { $promise.result }
# OUTPUT: «timeout␤» 

$seconds can be fractional or negative. Negative values are treated as 0 (i.e. keeping the returned Promise right away).

Please note that situations like these are often more clearly handled with a react and whenever block.

method at

method at(Promise:U: $at:$scheduler = $*SCHEDULER --> Promise:D)

Creates a new Promise that will be kept $at the given time—which is given as an Instant or equivalent Numeric—or as soon as possible after it.

my $p = Promise.at(now + 2).then({ say "2 seconds later" });
# do other stuff here 
 
await $p;   # wait here until the 2 seconds are over 

If the given time is in the past, it will be treated as now (i.e. keeping the returned Promise right away).

Please note that situations like these are often more clearly handled with a react and whenever block.

method kept

multi method kept(Promise:U: \result = True --> Promise:D)

Returns a new promise that is already kept, either with the given value, or with the default value True.

method broken

multi method broken(Promise:U: --> Promise:D)
multi method broken(Promise:U: \exception --> Promise:D)

Returns a new promise that is already broken, either with the given value, or with the default value X::AdHoc.new(payload => "Died")

method allof

method allof(Promise:U: *@promises --> Promise:D)

Returns a new promise that will be kept when all the promises passed as arguments are kept or broken. The result of the individual Promises is not reflected in the result of the returned promise: it simply indicates that all the promises have been completed in some way. If the results of the individual promises are important then they should be inspected after the allof promise is kept.

In the following requesting the result of a broken promise will cause the original Exception to be thrown. (You may need to run it several times to see the exception.)

my @promises;
for 1..5 -> $t {
    push @promisesstart {
        sleep $t;
    };
}
my $all-done = Promise.allof(@promises);
await $all-done;
@promises>>.result;
say "Promises kept so we get to live another day!";

method anyof

method anyof(Promise:U: *@promises --> Promise:D)

Returns a new promise that will be kept as soon as any of the promises passed as arguments is kept or broken. The result of the completed Promise is not reflected in the result of the returned promise which will always be Kept.

You can use this to wait at most a number of seconds for a promise:

my $timeout = 5;
await Promise.anyof(
    Promise.in($timeout),
    start {
        # do a potentially long-running calculation here 
    },
);

method then

method then(Promise:D: &code)

Schedules a piece of code to be run after the invocant has been kept or broken, and returns a new promise for this computation. In other words, creates a chained promise.

my $timer = Promise.in(2);
my $after = $timer.then({ say "2 seconds are over!"'result' });
say $after.result;  # 2 seconds are over 
                    # result 

method keep

multi method keep(Promise:D: \result = True)

Keeps a promise, optionally setting the result. If no result is passed, the result will be True.

Throws an exception of type X::Promise::Vowed if a vow has already been taken. See method vow for more information.

my $p = Promise.new;
 
if Bool.pick {
    $p.keep;
}
else {
     $p.break;
}

method break

multi method break(Promise:D: \cause = False)

Breaks a promise, optionally setting the cause. If no cause is passed, the cause will be False.

Throws an exception of type X::Promise::Vowed if a vow has already been taken. See method vow for more information.

my $p = Promise.new;
 
$p.break('sorry');
say $p.status;          # OUTPUT: «Broken␤» 
say $p.cause;           # OUTPUT: «sorry␤» 

method result

method result(Promise:D)

Waits for the promise to be kept or broken. If it is kept, returns the result; otherwise throws the result as an exception.

method cause

method cause(Promise:D)

If the promise was broken, returns the result (or exception). Otherwise, throws an exception of type X::Promise::CauseOnlyValidOnBroken.

method Bool

multi method Bool(Promise:D:)

Returns True for a kept or broken promise, and False for one in state Planned.

method status

method status(Promise:D --> PromiseStatus)

Returns the current state of the promise: Kept, Broken or Planned:

say "promise got Kept" if $promise.status ~~ Kept;

method scheduler

method scheduler(Promise:D:)

Returns the scheduler that manages the promise.

method vow

my class Vow {
    has Promise $.promise;
    method keep() { ... }
    method break() { ... }
}
method vow(Promise:D: --> Vow:D)

Returns an object that holds the sole authority over keeping or breaking a promise. Calling keep or break on a promise that has vow taken throws an exception of type X::Promise::Vowed.

my $p   = Promise.new;
my $vow = $p.vow;
$vow.keep($p);
say $p.status;          # OUTPUT: «Kept␤» 

method Supply

method Supply(Promise:D:)

Returns a Supply that will emit the result of the Promise being Kept or quit with the cause if the Promise is Broken.

sub await

multi sub await(Promise:D --> Promise)
multi sub await(*@ --> Array)

Waits until one or more promises are all fulfilled, and then returns their values. Also works on channels. Any broken promises will rethrow their exceptions. If a list is passed it will return a list containing the results of awaiting each item in turn.

Type Graph

Type relations for Promise
perl6-type-graph Promise Promise Any Any Promise->Any Mu Mu Any->Mu

Expand above chart