class atomicint

Integer (native storage at the platform's atomic operation size)

class atomicint is Int is repr('P6int'{ }

An atomicint is a native integer sized such that CPU-provided atomic operations can be performed upon it. On a 32-bit CPU it will typically be 32 bits in size, and on an a 64-bit CPU it will typically be 64 bits in size. It exists to allow writing portable code that uses atomic operations.

Note: Rakudo releases before 2017.08 had no support for atomicints.

# Would typically only work on a 64-bit machine and VM build. 
my int64 $active = 0;
$active++;
 
# Would typically only work on a 32-bit machine and VM build. 
my int32 $active = 0;
$active++;
 
# Will work portably, though can only portably assume range of 32 bits. 
my atomicint $active = 0;
$active++;

The use of the atomicint type does not automatically provide atomicity; it must be used in conjunction with the atomic operations.

# Correct (will always output 80000) 
my atomicint $total = 0;
await start { for ^20000 { $total++ } } xx 4;
say $total;
 
# *** WRONG *** due to lack of use of the atomicint type. 
# Either works correctly or dies, depending on platform. 
my int $total = 0;
await start { for ^20000 { $total++ } } xx 4;
say $total;
 
# *** WRONG *** due to lack of use of the atomic increment operator. 
my atomicint $total = 0;
await start { for ^20000 { $total++ } } xx 4;
say $total;

Routines

sub atomic-assign

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-assign(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub atomic-assign(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic assignment to a native integer, which may be in a lexical, attribute, or native array element. If $value cannot unbox to a 64-bit native integer due to being too large, an exception will be thrown. If the size of atomicint is only 32 bits, then an out of range $value will be silently truncated. The atomic-assign routine ensures that any required barriers are performed such that the changed value will be "published" to other threads.

sub atomic-fetch

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-fetch(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic read of a native integer, which may live in a lexical, attribute, or native array element. Using this routine instead of simply using the variable ensures that the latest update to the variable from other threads will be seen, both by doing any required hardware barriers and also preventing the compiler from lifting reads. For example:

my atomicint $i = 0;
start { atomic-assign($i1}
while atomic-fetch($i== 0 { }

Is certain to terminate, while in:

my atomicint $i = 0;
start { atomic-assign($i1}
while $i == 0 { }

It would be legal for a compiler to observe that $i is not updated in the loop, and so lift the read out of the loop, thus causing the program to never terminate.

sub atomic-fetch-inc

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-fetch-inc(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic increment on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before incrementing it. Overflow will wrap around silently.

sub atomic-fetch-dec

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-fetch-dec(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic decrement on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before decrementing it. Overflow will wrap around silently.

sub atomic-fetch-add

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-fetch-add(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub atomic-fetch-add(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic addition on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before the addition was performed. Overflow will wrap around silently. If $value is too big to unbox to a 64-bit integer, an exception will be thrown. If $value otherwise overflows atomicint then it will be silently truncated before the addition is performed.

sub atomic-fetch-sub

Defined as:

multi sub atomic-fetch-sub(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub atomic-fetch-sub(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic subtraction on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before the subtraction was performed. Underflow will wrap around silently. If $value is too big to unbox to a 64-bit integer, an exception will be thrown. If $value otherwise overflows atomicint then it will be silently truncated before the subtraction is performed.

sub atomic-inc-fetch

multi sub atomic-inc-fetch(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic increment on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value resulting from the increment. Overflow will wrap around silently.

sub atomic-dec-fetch

multi sub atomic-dec-fetch(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic decrement on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value resulting from the decrement. Overflow will wrap around silently.

sub cas

Defined as:

multi sub cas(atomicint $target is rwint $expectedint $value)
multi sub cas(atomicint $target is rwInt() $expectedInt() $value)
multi sub cas(atomicint $target is rw&operation)

Performs an atomic compare and swap of the native integer value in location $target. The first two forms have semantics like:

my int $seen = $target;
if $seen == $expected {
    $target = $value;
}
return $seen;

Except it is performed as a single hardware-supported atomic instruction, as if all memory access to $target were blocked while it took place. Therefore it is safe to attempt the operation from multiple threads without any other synchronization. For example:

my atomicint $master = 0;
await start {
    if cas($master01== 0 {
        say "Master!"
    }
} xx 4

Will reliably only ever print Master! one time, as only one of the threads will be successful in changing the 0 into a 1.

Both $expected and $value will be coerced to Int and unboxed if needed. An exception will be thrown if the value cannot be represented as a 64-bit integer. If the size of atomicint is only 32 bits then the values will be silently truncated to this size.

The third form, taking a code object, will first do an atomic fetch of the current value and invoke the code object with it. It will then try to do an atomic compare and swap of the target, using the value passed to the code object as $expected and the result of the code object as $value. If this fails, it will read the latest value, and retry, until a CAS operation succeeds. Therefore, an atomic multiply of an atomicint $i by 2 could be implemented as:

cas $i-> int $current { $current * 2 }

If another thread changed the value while $current * 2 was being calculated then the block would be called again with the latest value for a further attempt, and this would be repeated until success.

Operators

infix ⚛=

multi sub infix:<⚛=>(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub infix:<⚛=>(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic assignment to a native integer, which may be in a lexical, attribute, or native array element. If $value cannot unbox to a 64-bit native integer due to being too large, an exception will be thrown. If the size of atomicint is only 32 bits, then an out of range $value will be silently truncated. The ⚛= operator ensures that any required barriers are performed such that the changed value will be "published" to other threads.

prefix ⚛

multi sub prefix:<>(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic read of a native integer, which may live in a lexical, attribute, or native array element. Using this operator instead of simply using the variable ensures that the latest update to the variable from other threads will be seen, both by doing any required hardware barriers and also preventing the compiler from lifting reads. For example:

my atomicint $i = 0;
start { $i ⚛= 1 }
while ⚛$i == 0 { }

Is certain to terminate, while in:

my atomicint $i = 0;
start { $i ⚛= 1 }
while $i == 0 { }

It would be legal for a compiler to observe that $i is not updated in the loop, and so lift the read out of the loop, thus causing the program to never terminate.

prefix ++⚛

multi sub prefix:<++⚛>(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic increment on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value resulting from the increment. Overflow will wrap around silently.

postfix ⚛++

multi sub postfix:<⚛++>(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic increment on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before incrementing it. Overflow will wrap around silently.

prefix --⚛

multi sub prefix:<--⚛>(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic decrement on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value resulting from the decrement. Overflow will wrap around silently.

postfix ⚛--

multi sub postfix:<⚛-->(atomicint $ is rw)

Performs an atomic decrement on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Returns the value as seen before decrementing it. Overflow will wrap around silently.

infix ⚛+=

Defined as:

multi sub infix:<⚛+=>(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub infix:<⚛+=>(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic addition on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Evaluates to the result of the addition. Overflow will wrap around silently. If $value is too big to unbox to a 64-bit integer, an exception will be thrown. If $value otherwise overflows atomicint then it will be silently truncated before the addition is performed.

infix ⚛-=

Defined as:

multi sub infix:<⚛-=>(atomicint $ is rwint $value)
multi sub infix:<⚛-=>(atomicint $ is rwInt() $value)

Performs an atomic subtraction on a native integer. This will be performed using hardware-provided atomic operations. Since the operation is atomic, it is safe to use without acquiring a lock. Evaluates to the result of the subtraction. Underflow will wrap around silently. If $value is too big to unbox to a 64-bit integer, an exception will be thrown. If $value otherwise overflows atomicint then it will be silently truncated before the subtraction is performed.

infix ⚛−=

Synonym for ⚛-= using U+2212 minus.

Type Graph

Type relations for atomicint
perl6-type-graph atomicint atomicint Int Int atomicint->Int Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Cool Cool Cool->Any Numeric Numeric Real Real Real->Numeric Int->Cool Int->Real

Expand above chart

Routines supplied by class Int

atomicint inherits from class Int, which provides the following routines:

(Int) method Capture

Defined as:

method Capture()

Throws X::Cannot::Capture.

(Int) routine chr

Defined as:

multi sub    chr(Int:D  --> Str:D)
multi method chr(Int:D: --> Str:D)

Returns a one-character string, by interpreting the integer as a Unicode codepoint number and converting it to the corresponding character.

Example:

65.chr;  # returns "A" 
196.chr# returns "Ä" 

(Int) routine expmod

Defined as:

multi sub    expmod(      $x,     $y,     $mod --> Int:D)
multi sub    expmod(Int:D $xInt $yInt $mod --> Int:D)
multi method expmod(Int:D:    Int $yInt $mod --> Int:D)

Returns the given Int raised to the $y power within modulus $mod, that is gives the result of ($x ** $y) mod $mod. The subroutine form can accept non-Int arguments, which will be coerced to Int.

say expmod(425);    # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say 7.expmod(25);     # OUTPUT: «4␤» 

(Int) method polymod

Defined as:

method polymod(Int:D: +@mods)

Returns a sequence of mod results corresponding to the divisors in @mods in the same order as they appear there. For the best effect, the divisors should be given from the smallest "unit" to the largest (e.g. 60 seconds per minute, 60 minutes per hour) and the results are returned in the same way: from smallest to the largest (5 seconds, 4 minutes). The last non-zero value will be the last remainder.

say 120.polymod(10);    # OUTPUT: «(0 12)␤» 
say 120.polymod(10,10); # OUTPUT: «(0 2 1)␤» 

In the first case, 120 is divided by 10 giving as a remainder 12, which is the last element. In the second, 120 is divided by 10, giving 12, whose remainder once divided by 10 is 2; the result of the integer division of 12 div 10 is the last remainder. The number of remainders will be always one more item than the number of given divisors. If the divisors are given as a lazy list, runs until the remainder is 0 or the list of divisors is exhausted. All divisors must be Ints, unless the method is called on a non-Int number.

my $seconds = 1 * 60*60*24 # days 
            + 3 * 60*60    # hours 
            + 4 * 60       # minutes 
            + 5;           # seconds 
 
say $seconds.polymod(6060);                # OUTPUT: «(5 4 27)␤» 
say $seconds.polymod(606024);            # OUTPUT: «(5 4 3 1)␤» 
 
say 120.polymod:      11010², 10³, 10⁴;  # OUTPUT: «(0 0 12 0 0 0)␤» 
say 120.polymod: lazy 11010², 10³, 10⁴;  # OUTPUT: «(0 0 12)␤» 
say 120.polymod:      11010² … ∞;        # OUTPUT: «(0 0 12)␤» 
 
say ⅔.polymod(⅓);                            # OUTPUT: «(0 2)␤» 
say 5.Rat.polymod(.3.2);                   # OUTPUT: «(0.2 0 80)␤» 
 
my @digits-in-base37 = 9123607.polymod(37 xx *); # Base conversion 
say @digits-in-base37.reverse                    # OUTPUT: «[4 32 4 15 36]␤» 

To illustrate how the Int, non-lazy version of polymod works, consider this code that implements it:

my $seconds = 2 * 60*60*24 # days 
            + 3 * 60*60    # hours 
            + 4 * 60       # minutes 
            + 5;           # seconds 
 
my @pieces;
for 606024 -> $divisor {
    @pieces.push: $seconds mod $divisor;
    $seconds div= $divisor
}
@pieces.push: $seconds;
 
say @pieces# OUTPUT: «[5 4 3 2]␤» 

For a more detailed discussion, see this blog post

(Int) routine is-prime

Defined as:

multi sub    is-prime (Int:D $number --> Bool:D)
multi method is-prime (Int:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if this Int is known to be a prime, or is likely to be a prime based on a probabilistic Miller-Rabin test.

Returns False if this Int is known not to be a prime.

say 2.is-prime;         # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say is-prime(9);        # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

(Int) routine lsb

Defined as:

multi method lsb(Int:D:)
multi sub    lsb(Int:D)

Returns Nil if the number is 0. Otherwise returns the zero-based index from the right of the least significant (rightmost) 1 in the binary representation of the number.

say 0b01011.lsb;        # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say 0b01010.lsb;        # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say 0b10100.lsb;        # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say 0b01000.lsb;        # OUTPUT: «3␤» 
say 0b10000.lsb;        # OUTPUT: «4␤» 

(Int) routine msb

Defined as:

multi method msb(Int:D:)
multi sub    msb(Int:D)

Returns Nil if the number is 0. Otherwise returns the zero-based index from the right of the most significant (leftmost) 1 in the binary representation of the number.

say 0b00001.msb;        # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say 0b00011.msb;        # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say 0b00101.msb;        # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say 0b01010.msb;        # OUTPUT: «3␤» 
say 0b10011.msb;        # OUTPUT: «4␤» 

(Int) routine unival

Defined as:

multi sub    unival(Int:D  --> Numeric)
multi method unival(Int:D: --> Numeric)

Returns the number represented by the Unicode codepoint with the given integer number, or NaN if it does not represent a number.

say ord("¾").unival;    # OUTPUT: «0.75␤» 
say 190.unival;         # OUTPUT: «0.75␤» 
say unival(65);         # OUTPUT: «NaN␤» 

(Int) infix div

multi sub infix:<div>(Int:DInt:D --> Int:D)

Does an integer division, rounded down.

Routines supplied by role Real

atomicint inherits from class Int, which does role Real, which provides the following routines:

(Real) method Bridge

Defined as:

method Bridge(Real:D:)

Default implementation coerces the invocant to Num and that's the behaviour of this method in core Real types. This method primarily exist to make it easy to implement custom Real types by users, with the Bridge method returning one of the core Real types (NOT necessarily a Num) that best represent the custom Real type. In turn, this lets all the core operators and methods obtain a usable value they can work with.

As an example, we can implement a custom Temperature type. It has a unit of measure and the value, which are given during instantiation. We can implement custom operators or conversion methods that work with this type. When it comes to regular mathematical operators, however, we can simply use the .Bridge method to convert the Temperature to Kelvin expressed in one of the core numeric types:

class Temperature is Real {
    has Str:D  $.unit  is required where any <K F C>;
    has Real:D $.value is required;
    method new ($value:$unit = 'K'{ self.bless :$value :$unit }
    # Note: implementing .new() that handles $value of type Temperature is left as an exercise 
 
    method Bridge {
        when $!unit eq 'F' { ($!value + 459.67) × 5/9 }
        when $!unit eq 'C' {  $!value + 273.15 }
        $!value
    }
    method gist { self.Str }
    method Str  { "$!value degrees $!unit" }
}
 
sub postfix:<> { Temperature.new: $^value:unit<C> }
sub postfix:<> { Temperature.new: $^value:unit<F> }
sub postfix:<K> { Temperature.new: $^value:unit<K> }
 
my $human := 36.6℃;
my $book  := 451℉;
my $sun   := 5778K;
say $human;                # OUTPUT: «36.6 degrees C␤» 
say $human + $book + $sun# OUTPUT: «6593.677777777778␤» 
say 123+ 456K;           # OUTPUT: «579␤» 

As we can see from the last two lines of the output, the type of the bridged result is not forced to be any particular core type. It is a Rat, when we instantiated Temperature with a Rat or when conversion was involved, and it is an Int when we instantiated Temperature with an Int.

(Real) method Complex

method Complex(Real:D: --> Complex:D)

Converts the number to a Complex with the number converted to a Num as its real part and 0e0 as the imaginary part.

(Real) method Rat

method Rat(Real:D: Real $epsilon = 1e-6)

Converts the number to a Rat with the precision $epsilon.

(Real) method Real

Defined as:

multi method Real(Real:D: --> Real:D)
multi method Real(Real:U: --> Real:D)

The :D variant simply returns the invocant. The :U variant issues a warning about using an uninitialized value in numeric context and then returns self.new.

(Real) routine rand

sub term:<rand> (--> Num:D)
method rand(Real:D: --> Real:D)

Returns a pseudo-random number between zero (inclusive) and the number (non-inclusive). The Bridge method is used to coerce the Real to a numeric that supports rand method.

The term form returns a pseudo-random Num between 0e0 (inclusive) and 1e0 (non-inclusive.)

(Real) method sign

method sign(Real:D:)

Returns -1 if the number is negative, 0 if it is zero and 1 otherwise.

(Real) method round

method round(Real:D: $scale = 1)

Rounds the number to scale $scale. If $scale is 1, rounds to an integer. If scale is 0.1, rounds to one digit after the comma etc.

(Real) method floor

method floor(Real:D --> Int:D)

Return the largest integer not greater than the number.

(Real) method ceiling

method ceiling(Real:D --> Int:D)

Returns the smallest integer not less than the number.

(Real) method truncate

method truncate(Real:D --> Int:D)

Rounds the number towards zero.

(Real) method polymod

method polymod(Real:D: +@mods)

Returns the remainders after applying sequentially all divisors in the @mods argument; the last element of the array will be the last remainder.

say (1e8+1).polymod(10 xx 8);# OUTPUT: «(1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1)␤» 

10 xx 8 is simply an array with eight number 10s; the first division by 10 will return 1 as a remainder, while the rest, up to the last, will return 0. With 8 divisors, as above, the result will have one more elements, in this case for the last remainder.

(Real) method base

method base(Real:D: Int:D $base where 2..36$digits? --> Str:D)

Converts the number to a string, using $base as base. For $base larger than ten, capital Latin letters are used.

255.base(16);            # 'FF' 

The optional $digits argument asks for that many digits of fraction (which may not be negative). If omitted, a reasonable default is chosen based on type. For Int this default is 0. For Num, the default is 8. For Rational, the number of places is scaled to the size of the denominator, with a minimum of 6.

A special value of Whatever (*) can be given as $digits, which functions the same as when $digits is not specified for all Real types except the Rationals. For Rationals, the Whatever indicates that you wish all of the possible digits of the fractional part, but use caution: since there's no detection of repeating fractional parts (the algorithm will eventually stop after generating 2**63 digits).

The final digit produced is always rounded.

say pi.base(103);      # OUTPUT: «3.142␤» 
say (1/128).base(10*); # OUTPUT: «0.0078125␤» 
say (1/100).base(10*); # OUTPUT: «0.01␤» 
say (1/3)  .base(10*); # WRONG: endlessly repeating fractional part 

For reverse operation, see parse-base

Routines supplied by class Cool

atomicint inherits from class Cool, which provides the following routines:

(Cool) routine abs

Defined as:

sub abs(Numeric() $x)
method abs()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric and returns the absolute value (that is, a non-negative number).

say (-2).abs;       # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say abs "6+8i";     # OUTPUT: «10␤» 

(Cool) method conj

Defined as:

method conj()

Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns the complex conjugate (that is, the number with the sign of the imaginary part negated).

say (1+2i).conj;        # OUTPUT: «1-2i␤» 

(Cool) routine sqrt

Defined as:

sub sqrt(Numeric(Cool$x)
method sqrt()

Coerces the invocant to Numeric (or in the sub form, the argument) and returns the square root, that is, a non-negative number that, when multiplied with itself, produces the original number.

say 4.sqrt;             # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say sqrt(2);            # OUTPUT: «1.4142135623731␤» 

(Cool) method sign

Defined as:

method sign()

Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns its sign, that is, 0 if the number is 0, 1 for positive and -1 for negative values.

say 6.sign;             # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say (-6).sign;          # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 
say "0".sign;           # OUTPUT: «0␤» 

(Cool) method rand

Defined as:

method rand()

Coerces the invocant to Num and returns a pseudo-random value between zero and the number.

say 1e5.rand;           # OUTPUT: «33128.495184283␤» 

(Cool) routine sin

Defined as:

sub sin(Numeric(Cool))
method sin()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its sine.

say sin(0);             # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say sin(pi/4);          # OUTPUT: «0.707106781186547␤» 
say sin(pi/2);          # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

Note that Perl 6 is no computer algebra system, so sin(pi) typically does not produce an exact 0, but rather a very small floating-point number.

(Cool) routine asin

Defined as:

sub asin(Numeric(Cool))
method asin()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-sine in radians.

say 0.1.asin;               # OUTPUT: «0.10016742116156␤» 
say asin(0.1);              # OUTPUT: «0.10016742116156␤» 

(Cool) routine cos

Defined as:

sub cos(Numeric(Cool))
method cos()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosine.

say 0.cos;                  # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say pi.cos;                 # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 
say cos(pi/2);              # OUTPUT: «6.12323399573677e-17␤» 

(Cool) routine acos

Defined as:

sub acos(Numeric(Cool))
method acos()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosine in radians.

say 1.acos;                 # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say acos(-1);               # OUTPUT: «3.14159265358979␤» 

(Cool) routine tan

Defined as:

sub tan(Numeric(Cool))
method tan()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its tangent.

say tan(3);                 # OUTPUT: «-0.142546543074278␤» 
say 3.tan;                  # OUTPUT: «-0.142546543074278␤» 

(Cool) routine atan

Defined as:

sub atan(Numeric(Cool))
method atan()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-tangent in radians.

say atan(3);                # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 
say 3.atan;                 # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 

(Cool) routine atan2

Defined as:

sub atan2(Numeric() $xNumeric() $y = 1e0)
method atan2($y = 1e0)

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns their two-argument arc-tangent in radians.

say atan2(3);               # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 
say 3.atan2;                # OUTPUT: «1.24904577239825␤» 

(Cool) routine sec

Defined as:

sub sec(Numeric(Cool))
method sec()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its secant, that is, the reciprocal of its cosine.

say 45.sec;                 # OUTPUT: «1.90359440740442␤» 
say sec(45);                # OUTPUT: «1.90359440740442␤» 

(Cool) routine asec

Defined as:

sub asec(Numeric(Cool))
method asec()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-secant in radians.

say 1.asec;                 # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say sqrt(2).asec;           # OUTPUT: «0.785398163397448␤» 

(Cool) routine cosec

Defined as:

sub cosec(Numeric(Cool))
method cosec()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosecant, that is, the reciprocal of its sine.

say 0.45.cosec;             # OUTPUT: «2.29903273150897␤» 
say cosec(0.45);            # OUTPUT: «2.29903273150897␤» 

(Cool) routine acosec

Defined as:

sub acosec(Numeric(Cool))
method acosec()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosecant in radians.

say 45.acosec;              # OUTPUT: «0.0222240516182672␤» 
say acosec(45)              # OUTPUT: «0.0222240516182672␤» 

(Cool) routine cotan

Defined as:

sub cotan(Numeric(Cool))
method cotan()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cotangent, that is, the reciprocal of its tangent.

say 45.cotan;               # OUTPUT: «0.617369623783555␤» 
say cotan(45);              # OUTPUT: «0.617369623783555␤» 

(Cool) routine acotan

Defined as:

sub acotan(Numeric(Cool))
method acotan()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cotangent in radians.

say 45.acotan;              # OUTPUT: «0.0222185653267191␤» 
say acotan(45)              # OUTPUT: «0.0222185653267191␤» 

(Cool) routine sinh

Defined as:

sub sinh(Numeric(Cool))
method sinh()

Coerces the invocant (or in method form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Sine hyperbolicus.

say 1.sinh;                 # OUTPUT: «1.1752011936438␤» 
say sinh(1);                # OUTPUT: «1.1752011936438␤» 

(Cool) routine asinh

Defined as:

sub asinh(Numeric(Cool))
method asinh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Sine hyperbolicus.

say 1.asinh;                # OUTPUT: «0.881373587019543␤» 
say asinh(1);               # OUTPUT: «0.881373587019543␤» 

(Cool) routine cosh

Defined as:

sub cosh(Numeric(Cool))
method cosh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Cosine hyperbolicus.

say cosh(0.5);              # OUTPUT: «1.12762596520638␤» 

(Cool) routine acosh

Defined as:

sub acosh(Numeric(Cool))
method acosh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse Cosine hyperbolicus.

say acosh(45);              # OUTPUT: «4.4996861906715␤» 

(Cool) routine tanh

Defined as:

sub tanh(Numeric(Cool))
method tanh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians and returns its Tangent hyperbolicus.

say tanh(0.5);              # OUTPUT: «0.46211715726001␤» 
say tanh(atanh(0.5));       # OUTPUT: «0.5␤» 

(Cool) routine atanh

Defined as:

sub atanh(Numeric(Cool))
method atanh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse tangent hyperbolicus.

say atanh(0.5);             # OUTPUT: «0.549306144334055␤» 

(Cool) routine sech

Defined as:

sub sech(Numeric(Cool))
method sech()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Secant hyperbolicus.

say 0.sech;                 # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

(Cool) routine asech

Defined as:

sub asech(Numeric(Cool))
method asech()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic secant.

say 0.8.asech;              # OUTPUT: «0.693147180559945␤» 

(Cool) routine cosech

Defined as:

sub cosech(Numeric(Cool))
method cosech()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cosecant.

say cosech(pi/2);           # OUTPUT: «0.434537208094696␤» 

(Cool) routine acosech

Defined as:

sub acosech(Numeric(Cool))
method acosech()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cosecant.

say acosech(4.5);           # OUTPUT: «0.220432720979802␤» 

(Cool) routine cotanh

Defined as:

sub cotanh(Numeric(Cool))
method cotanh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Hyperbolic cotangent.

say cotanh(pi);             # OUTPUT: «1.00374187319732␤» 

(Cool) routine acotanh

Defined as:

sub acotanh(Numeric(Cool))
method acotanh()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns its Inverse hyperbolic cotangent.

say acotanh(2.5);           # OUTPUT: «0.423648930193602␤» 

(Cool) routine cis

Defined as:

sub cis(Numeric(Cool))
method cis()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and returns cos(argument) + i*sin(argument).

say cis(pi/4);              # OUTPUT: «0.707106781186548+0.707106781186547i␤» 

(Cool) routine log

Defined as:

multi sub log(Numeric(Cool$numberNumeric(Cool$base?)
multi method log(Cool:D: Cool:D $base?)

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base $base, or to base e (Euler's Number) if no base was supplied (Natural logarithm). Returns NaN if $base is negative. Throws an exception if $base is 1.

say (e*e).log;              # OUTPUT: «2␤» 

(Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

multi sub log10(Cool(Numeric))
multi method log10()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

say log10(1001);            # OUTPUT: «3.00043407747932␤» 

(Cool) routine exp

Defined as:

multi sub exp(Cool:D $powCool:D $base?)
multi method exp(Cool:D: Cool:D $base?)

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

say 0.exp;      # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say 1.exp;      # OUTPUT: «2.71828182845905␤» 
say 10.exp;     # OUTPUT: «22026.4657948067␤» 

(Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

method unpolar(Numeric(Cool))

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

say sqrt(2).unpolar(pi/4);      # OUTPUT: «1+1i␤» 

(Cool) routine round

Defined as:

multi sub round(Numeric(Cool))
multi method round(Cool:D: $unit = 1)

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $unit. If $unit is 1, rounds to the nearest integer.

say 1.7.round;          # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say 1.07.round(0.1);    # OUTPUT: «1.1␤» 
say 21.round(10);       # OUTPUT: «20␤» 

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

say (−.5 ).round;       # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say ( .5 ).round;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say (−.55).round(.1);   # OUTPUT: «-0.5␤» 
say ( .55).round(.1);   # OUTPUT: «0.6␤» 

Pay attention to types when using this method, as ending up with the wrong type may affect the precision you seek to achieve. For Real types, the type of the result is the type of the argument (Complex argument gets coerced to Real, ending up a Num). If rounding a Complex, the result is Complex as well, regardless of the type of the argument.

9930972392403501.round(1)      .perl.say# OUTPUT: «9930972392403501␤» 
9930972392403501.round(1e0)    .perl.say# OUTPUT: «9.9309723924035e+15␤» 
9930972392403501.round(1e0).Int.perl.say# OUTPUT: «9930972392403500␤» 

(Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

multi sub floor(Numeric(Cool))
multi method floor

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

say "1.99".floor;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say "-1.9".floor;       # OUTPUT: «-2␤» 
say 0.floor;            # OUTPUT: «0␤» 

(Cool) method fmt

Defined as:

method fmt($format = '%s')

Equivalent to calling sprintf with $format as format and the invocant as the second argument. The $format will be coerced to Stringy and defaults to '%s'

(Cool) routine ceiling

Defined as:

multi sub ceiling(Numeric(Cool))
multi method ceiling

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer.

say "1".ceiling;        # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say "-0.9".ceiling;     # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say "42.1".ceiling;     # OUTPUT: «43␤» 

(Cool) routine truncate

Defined as:

multi sub truncate(Numeric(Cool))
multi method truncate()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero.

say 1.2.truncate;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say truncate -1.2;      # OUTPUT: «-1␤» 

(Cool) routine ord

Defined as:

sub ord(Str(Cool))
method ord()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point.

say 'a'.ord;            # OUTPUT: «97␤» 

The inverse operation is chr.

Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number

(Cool) method path

Defined as:

method path()

DEPRECATED. Existed only in the Rakudo implementation and isn't part of any language released. Will issue deprecation warnings in future language versions and eventually will be removed entirely.

Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead.

(Cool) routine chr

Defined as:

sub chr(Int(Cool))
method chr()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point.

say '65'.chr;       # OUTPUT: «A␤» 

The inverse operation is ord.

Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character.

(Cool) routine chars

Defined as:

sub chars(Str(Cool))
method chars()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes.

say 'møp'.chars;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 
say 'ã̷̠̬̊'.chars;     # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say '👨‍👩‍👧‍👦🏿'.chars;    # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”.

Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner).

You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave:

say ã̷̠̬̊.uniprops(Grapheme_Cluster_Break); # OUTPUT: «(Other Extend Extend Extend Extend)␤» 
say 👨‍👩‍👧‍👦🏿.uniprops(Grapheme_Cluster_Break); # OUTPUT: «(E_Base_GAZ ZWJ E_Base_GAZ ZWJ E_Base_GAZ ZWJ E_Base_GAZ E_Modifier)␤» 

You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Perl 6 tightly follows, using a method called NFG, normal form graphemes for efficiently representing them.

(Cool) routine codes

Defined as:

sub codes(Str(Cool))
method codes()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points.

say 'møp'.codes;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

The same result will be obtained with

say +'møp'.ords;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed.

(Cool) routine flip

Defined as:

sub flip(Str(Cool))
method flip()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version.

say 421.flip;       # OUTPUT: «124␤» 

(Cool) routine trim

Defined as:

sub trim(Str(Cool))
method trim()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped.

my $stripped = '  abc '.trim;
say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<abc>␤» 

(Cool) routine trim-leading

Defined as:

sub trim-leading(Str(Cool))
method trim-leading()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped.

my $stripped = '  abc '.trim-leading;
say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<abc >␤» 

(Cool) routine trim-trailing

Defined as:

sub trim-trailing(Str(Cool))
method trim-trailing()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped.

my $stripped = '  abc '.trim-trailing;
say "<$stripped>";          # OUTPUT: «<  abc>␤» 

(Cool) routine lc

Defined as:

sub lc(Str(Cool))
method lc()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case.

say "ABC".lc;       # OUTPUT: «abc␤» 

(Cool) routine uc

Defined as:

sub uc(Str(Cool))
method uc()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters).

say "Abc".uc;       # OUTPUT: «ABC␤» 

(Cool) routine fc

Defined as:

sub fc(Str(Cool))
method fc()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.)

say "groß".fc;       # OUTPUT: «gross␤» 

(Cool) routine tc

Defined as:

sub tc(Str(Cool))
method tc()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case).

say "abC".tc;       # OUTPUT: «AbC␤» 

(Cool) routine tclc

Defined as:

sub tclc(Str(Cool))
method tclc()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case.

say 'abC'.tclc;     # OUTPUT: «Abc␤» 

(Cool) routine wordcase

Defined as:

sub wordcase(Str(Cool$input:&filter = &tclcMu :$where = True)
method wordcase(:&filter = &tclcMu :$where = True)

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and filters each word that smartmatches against $where through the &filter. With the default filter (first character to upper case, rest to lower) and matcher (which accepts everything), this title-cases each word:

say "perl 6 programming".wordcase;      # OUTPUT: «Perl 6 Programming␤» 

With a matcher:

say "have fun working on perl".wordcase(:where({ .chars > 3 }));
                                        # Have fun Working on Perl 

With a customer filter too:

say "have fun working on perl".wordcase(:filter(&uc), :where({ .chars > 3 }));
                                        # HAVE fun WORKING on PERL 

(Cool) routine samecase

Defined as:

sub samecase(Cool $stringCool $pattern)
method samecase(Cool:D: Cool $pattern)

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a copy of $string with case information for each individual character changed according to $pattern.

Note: The pattern string can contain three types of characters, i.e. uppercase, lowercase and caseless. For a given character in $pattern its case information determines the case of the corresponding character in the result.

If $string is longer than $pattern, the case information from the last character of $pattern is applied to the remaining characters of $string.

say "perL 6".samecase("A__a__"); # OUTPUT: «Perl 6␤» 
say "pERL 6".samecase("Ab");     # OUTPUT: «Perl 6␤» 

(Cool) routine uniprop

Defined as:

multi sub uniprop(Str:D|c)
multi sub uniprop(Int:D $code)
multi sub uniprop(Int:D $codeStringy:D $propname)
multi method uniprop(|c)

Returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties.

say 'a'.uniprop;               # OUTPUT: «Ll␤» 
say '1'.uniprop;               # OUTPUT: «Nd␤» 
say 'a'.uniprop('Alphabetic'); # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say '1'.uniprop('Alphabetic'); # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

(Cool) sub uniprops

Defined as:

sub uniprops(Str:D $strStringy:D $propname = "General_Category")

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop

(Cool) routine uniname

Defined as:

sub uniname(Str(Cool--> Str)
method uniname(--> Str)

Interprets the invocant or first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction.

# Camelia in Unicode 
say »ö«.uniname;
# OUTPUT: «"RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK"␤» 
say "Ḍ̇".uniname# Note, doesn't show "COMBINING DOT ABOVE" 
# OUTPUT: «"LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT BELOW"␤» 
 
# Find the char with the longest Unicode name. 
say (0..0x1FFFF).sort(*.uniname.chars)[*-1].chr.uniname;
# OUTPUT: ««ARABIC LIGATURE UIGHUR KIRGHIZ YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE WITH ALEF MAKSURA INITIAL FORM␤»␤» 

(Cool) routine uninames

Defined as:

sub uninames(Str:D)
method uninames()

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

say »ö«.uninames.perl;
# OUTPUT: «("RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK", "LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS", "LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK").Seq␤» 

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

say "Ḍ̇'oh".comb>>.uninames.perl;
# OUTPUT: «(("LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT BELOW", "COMBINING DOT ABOVE").Seq, ("APOSTROPHE",).Seq, ("LATIN SMALL LETTER O",).Seq, ("LATIN SMALL LETTER H",).Seq)␤» 

See uniparse for the opposite direction.

(Cool) routine unimatch

Defined as:

multi sub unimatch(Str:D $str|c)
multi unimatch(Int:D $codeStringy:D $pvalnameStringy:D $propname = $pvalname)

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the string given have a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

say unimatch 'A''Latin';           # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say unimatch 'A''Latin''Script'# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say unimatch 'A''Ll';              # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

(Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

sub chop(Str(Cool))
method chop()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

say 'perl'.chop;                        # OUTPUT: «per␤» 

(Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

sub chomp(Str(Cool))
method chomp()

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

say 'ab'.chomp.chars;                   # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say "a\n".chomp.chars;                  # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

(Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

sub substr(Str(Cool$str|c)
method substr(|c)

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments.

(Cool) routine substr-rw

Defined as:

multi method substr-rw(|) is rw
multi sub substr-rw(|) is rw

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr-rw with the arguments.

(Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

sub ords(Str(Cool$str)
method ords()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

say "Camelia".ords;              # OUTPUT: «67 97 109 101 108 105 97␤» 
say ords 10;                     # OUTPUT: «49 48␤» 

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option.

(Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

sub chrs(*@codepoints --> Str:D)
method chrs()

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

say <67 97 109 101 108 105 97>.chrs;   # OUTPUT: «Camelia␤» 

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

(Cool) routine split

Defined as:

multi sub    split(  Str:D $delimiterStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
multi sub    split(Regex:D $delimiterStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
multi sub    split(@delimitersStr(Cool$input$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
multi method split(  Str:D $delimiter$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
multi method split(Regex:D $delimiter$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)
multi method split(@delimiters$limit = Inf:$k:$v:$kv:$p:$skip-empty)

[1]

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, and splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string.

If $delimiter is a string, it is searched for literally and not treated as a regex. You can also provide multiple delimiters by specifying them as a list; mixing Cool and Regex objects is OK.

say split(';'"a;b;c").perl;               # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c")␤» 
say split(';'"a;b;c"2).perl;            # OUTPUT: «("a", "b;c").Seq␤» 
 
say split(';'"a;b;c,d").perl;             # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c,d")␤» 
say split(/\;/"a;b;c,d").perl;            # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c,d")␤» 
say split(/<[;,]>/"a;b;c,d").perl;        # OUTPUT: «("a", "b", "c", "d")␤» 
 
say split(['a', /b+/4], '1a2bb345').perl# OUTPUT: «("1", "2", "3", "5")␤» 

By default, split omits the matches, and returns a list of only those parts of the string that did not match. Specifying one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs changes that. Think of the matches as a list that is interleaved with the non-matching parts.

The :v interleaves the values of that list, which will be either Match objects, if a Regex was used as a matcher in the split, or Str objects, if a Cool was used as matcher. If multiple delimiters are specified, Match objects will be generated for all of them, unless all of the delimiters are Cool.

say 'abc'.split(/b/:v);               # OUTPUT: «(a 「b」 c)␤» 
say 'abc'.split('b':v);               # OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤» 

:k interleaves the keys, that is, the indexes:

say 'abc'.split(/b/:k);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 c)␤» 

:kv adds both indexes and matches:

say 'abc'.split(/b/:kv);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 「b」 c)␤» 

and :p adds them as Pairs, using the same types for values as :v does:

say 'abc'.split(/b/:p);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 => 「b」 c)␤» 
say 'abc'.split('b':p);               # OUTPUT: «(a 0 => b c)␤» 

You can only use one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs in a single call to split.

Note that empty chunks are not removed from the result list. For that behavior, use the :skip-empty named argument:

say ("f,,b,c,d".split: /","/             ).perl;  # OUTPUT: «("f", "", "b", "c", "d")␤» 
say ("f,,b,c,d".split: /","/:skip-empty).perl;  # OUTPUT: «("f", "b", "c", "d")␤» 

(Cool) routine lines

Defined as:

sub lines(Str(Cool))
method lines()

Coerces the invocant (and in sub form, the argument) to Str, decomposes it into lines (with the newline characters stripped), and returns the list of lines.

say lines("a\nb\n").join('|');          # OUTPUT: «a|b␤» 
say "some\nmore\nlines".lines.elems;    # OUTPUT: «3␤» 

This method can be used as part of an IO::Path to process a file line-by-line, since IO::Path objects inherit from Cool, e.g.:

for 'huge-csv'.IO.lines -> $line {
    # Do something with $line 
}
 
# or if you'll be processing later 
my @lines = 'huge-csv'.IO.lines;

Without any arguments, sub lines operates on $*ARGFILES, which defaults to $*IN in the absence of any filenames.

To modify values in place use is copy to force a writable container.

for $*IN.lines -> $_ is copy { s/(\w+)/{$0 ~ $0}/.say }

(Cool) method words

Defined as:

method words(Cool:D: |c)

Coerces the invocant (or first argument, if it is called as a subroutine) to Str, and returns a list of words that make up the string (and if $limit is supplied and is not equal to Inf, only the first $limit words).

say <The quick brown fox>.words.join('|');      # OUTPUT: «The|quick|brown|fox␤» 
say <The quick brown fox>.words(2).join('|');   # OUTPUT: «The|quick␤» 

Cool is the base class for many other classes, and some of them, like Match, can be converted to a string. This is what happens in this case:

say ( "easy come, easy goes" ~~ m:g/(ea\w+)/).words(Inf);
# OUTPUT: «(easy easy)␤» 
say words"easy come, easy goes" ~~ m:g/(ea\w+)/ , ∞);
# OUTPUT: «(easy easy)␤» 

The example above shows the two ways words can be invoked, with the first argument turned into invocant by its signature. Of course, Inf is the default value of the second argument, so in both cases (and forms) it can be simply omited.

Only whitespace (including no-break space) counts as word boundaries

say <Don't we ♥ Perl 6>.words.join('|');# OUTPUT: «Don't|we|♥|Perl|6␤» 

In this case, Perl 6 includes an (visible only in the source) no-break space; words still splits the (resulting) Str on it, even if the original array only had 4 elements:

say <Don't we ♥ Perl 6>.join("|");# OUTPUT: «Don't|we|♥|Perl 6␤» 

Please see Str.words for more examples.

(Cool) routine comb

Defined as:

multi sub comb(Regex $matcherCool $input$limit = *)
multi sub comb(Str $matcherCool $input$limit = *)
multi sub comb(Int:D $sizeCool $input$limit = *)
multi method comb(|c)

Returns a list of all (or if supplied, at most $limit) matches of the invocant (method form) or the second argument (sub form) against the Regex, string or defined number.

say "6 or 12".comb(/\d+/).join("");           # OUTPUT: «6, 12␤» 
say comb(/\d <[1..9]> /,(11..30)).join("--");
# OUTPUT: 
# «11--12--13--14--15--16--17--18--19--21--22--23--24--25--26--27--28--29␤» 

The second statement exemplifies the first form of comb, with a Regex that excludes multiples of ten, and a Range (which is Cool) as $input. comb stringifies the Range before applying .comb on the resulting string. Check Str.comb for its effect on different kind of input strings. When the first argument is an integer, it indicates the (maximum) size of the chunks the input is going to be divided in

say comb(3,[3,33,333,3333]).join("*");# OUTPUT: «3 3*3 3*33 *333*3␤» 

In this case the input is a list, which after transformation to Str (which includes the spaces) is divided in chunks of size 3.

(Cool) method contains

Defined as:

method contains(Cool:D: |c)

Coerces the invocant Str, and calls Str.contains on it. Please refer to that version of the method for arguments and general syntax.

say 123.contains("2")# OUTPUT: «True␤» 

Since Int is a subclass of Cool, 123 is coerced to a Str and then contains is called on it.

say (1,1* + * … * > 250).contains(233)# OUTPUT: «True␤» 

Seqs are also subclasses of Cool, and they are stringified to a comma-separated form. In this case we are also using an Int, which is going to be stringified also; "233" is included in that sequence, so it returns True. Please note that this sequence is not lazy; the stringification of lazy sequences does not include each and every one of their components for obvious reasons.

(Cool) routine index

Defined as:

multi sub index(Cool $sCool $needleCool $pos = 0)
method    index(Cool:D: |c)

Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to a Str, and searches for $needle in the string $s starting from $startpos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and an undefined value if it was not found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

(Cool) routine rindex

Defined as:

multi sub    rindex(Str(Cool$haystackStr(Cool$needleInt(Cool$startpos = $haystack.chars)
multi method rindex(Str(Cool$haystack: Str(Cool$needleInt(Cool$startpos = $haystack.chars)

Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $startpos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in $haystack not after $startpos. Returns an undefined value if $needle wasn't found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

(Cool) method match

Defined as:

multi method match(Cool:D: $target*%adverbs)

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls the method match on it.

(Cool) method fmt

Defined as:

method fmt($format = '%s' --> Str:D)

Uses $format to return a formatted representation of the invocant.

For more information about formats strings, see sprintf.

say 11.fmt('This Int equals %03d');               # OUTPUT: «This Int equals 011␤» 
say '16'.fmt('Hexadecimal %x');                   # OUTPUT: «Hexadecimal 10␤» 

(Cool) routine roots

Defined as:

multi sub roots(Numeric(Cool$xInt(Cool$n)
multi method roots(Int(Cool$n)

Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

For example

my $original = 16;
my @roots = $original.roots(4);
say @roots;
 
for @roots -> $r {
    say abs($r ** 4 - $original);
}
 
# OUTPUT:«2+0i 1.22464679914735e-16+2i -2+2.44929359829471e-16i -3.67394039744206e-16-2i␤» 
# OUTPUT:«1.77635683940025e-15␤» 
# OUTPUT:«4.30267170434156e-15␤» 
# OUTPUT:«8.03651692704705e-15␤» 
# OUTPUT:«1.04441561648202e-14␤» 

(Cool) method match

Defined as:

method match(|)

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.match.

(Cool) method subst

Defined as:

method subst(|)

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.subst.

(Cool) method trans

Defined as:

method trans(|)

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls Str.trans

(Cool) method IO

Defined as:

method IO(--> IO::Path:D)

Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

.say for '.'.IO.dir;        # gives a directory listing 

(Cool) routine EVAL

Defined as:

method EVAL(*%_)
sub EVAL($code where Cool|Blob:$lang = 'perl6')

The method form calls subroutine form with invocant as $code, passing along named args, if any. Subroutine form coerces Cool $code to Str. If $code is a Blob, it'll be processed using the same encoding as the $lang compiler would: for perl6 $lang, uses utf-8; for Perl5, processes using the same rules as perl.

This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

use MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL# Or... 
use MONKEY;             # shortcut that turns on all MONKEY pragmas 
use Test;
 
# any of the above allows: 
EVAL "say { 5 + 5 }";   # OUTPUT: «10␤» 

In case the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma is not activated, the compiler will complain with a EVAL is a very dangerous function!!! exception. And it is essentially right, since that will run arbitrary code with the same permissions as the program. You should take care of cleaning the code that is going to pass through EVAL if you activate the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma.

Please note that you can interpolate to create routine names using quotation, as can be seen in this example or other ways to interpolate to create identifier names. This only works, however, for already declared functions and other objects and is thus safer to use.

Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

my $answer = 42;
EVAL 'say $answer;';    # OUTPUT: «42␤» 

However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

EVAL 'my $lives = 9'say $lives;   # error, $lives not declared 

Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

module M {
    EVAL 'our $answer = 42'
}
say $M::answer;         # OUTPUT: «42␤» 

And also the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
    @a.sum / @a.elems
}
EVAL 'say 2 mean 6 mean 4';     # OUTPUT: «4␤» 

An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
    @a.sum / @a.elems
}
say EVAL 'say 1; 2 mean 6 mean 4';         # OUTPUT: «1␤4␤» 

EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

EVAL "use v5.20; say 'Hello from perl5!'":lang<Perl5>;

(Cool) sub EVALFILE

Defined as:

sub EVALFILE($filename where Blob|Cool:$lang = 'perl6')

Slurps the specified file and evaluates it. Behaves the same way as EVAL with regard to Blob decoding, scoping, and the $lang parameter. Evaluates to the value produced by the final statement in the file.

EVALFILE "foo.p6";

(Cool) routine unpolar

Defined as:

method unpolar(Real $angle)
multi sub unpolar(Real $magReal $angle)

Returns a Complex with the coordinates corresponding to the angle in radians and magnitude corresponding to the object value or $mag in the case it's being used as a sub

say 1.unpolar(⅓*pi);
# OUTPUT: «0.5000000000000001+0.8660254037844386i␤» 

(Cool) routine printf

Defined as:

method printf (*@args)
multi sub printf(Cool:D $format*@args)

As a method, takes the object as a format using the same language as Str.sprintf; as a sub, its first argument will be the format string, and the rest of the arguments will be substituted in the format following the format conventions.

"%s is %s".printf("þor""mighty");# OUTPUT: «þor is mighty» 
printf"%s is %s""þor""mighty"); # OUTPUT: «þor is mighty» 

(Cool) routine sprintf

Defined as:

method sprintf(*@args)
multi sub sprintf(Cool:D $format*@args)

Formats and outputs a string, following the same language as Str.sprintf, using as such format either the object (if called in method form) or the first argument (if called as a routine)

sprintf"%s the %d%s""þor"1"st").put#OUTPUT: «þor the 1st␤» 
sprintf"%s is %s""þor""mighty").put;   # OUTPUT: «þor is mighty␤» 
"%s's weight is %.2f %s".sprintf"Mjölnir"3.3392"kg").put;
# OUTPUT: «Mjölnir's weight is 3.34 kg␤»