role Callable

Invocable code object

role Callable { ... }

Role for objects which support calling them. It's used in Block, Routine, Sub, Method, Submethod and Macro types.

Callables can be stored in &-sigiled containers, the default type constraint of such a container is Callable. A signature object can be used to force a check against the signature of the Callable to be stored into the container.

my &a = {;}# Empty block needs a semicolon 
my &b = -> {};
my &c = sub () {};
sub foo() {};
my &d = &foo;
my &f:(Int= sub bar(Int{}# Not yet implemented 
my &f:(Str= -> Str {};       # Not yet implemented 

Methods

method CALL-ME

method CALL-ME(Callable:D $self: |arguments)

This method is required for postfix:«( )» and postfix:«.( )». It's what makes an object actually call-able and needs to be overloaded to let a given object act like a routine. If the object needs to be stored in a &-sigiled container, is has to implement Callable.

class A does Callable {
    submethod CALL-ME(|c){ 'called' }
}
my &a = A;
say a(); # OUTPUT: «called␤» 

method Capture

Defined as:

method Capture()

Throws X::Cannot::Capture.

method assuming

method assuming(Callable:D $self: |primers)

Returns a Callable that implements the same behaviour as the original, but has the values passed to .assuming already bound to the corresponding parameters.

my sub slow($n){ my $i = 0$i++ while $i < $n$i };
 
# takes only one parameter and as such wont forward $n 
sub bench(&c){ cnow - ENTER now };
 
say &slow.assuming(10000000).&bench# OUTPUT: «(10000000 7.5508834)␤» 

For a sub with arity greater than one, you can use Whatever * for all of the positional parameters that are not "assumed".

sub first-and-last ( $first$last ) {
    say "Name is $first $last";
}
 
my &surname-smith = &first-and-last.assuming*'Smith' );
 
&surname-smith.'Joe' ); # OUTPUT: «Name is Joe Smith␤» 

You can handle any combination of assumed and not assumed positional parameters:

sub longer-names ( $first$middle$last$suffix ) {
    say "Name is $first $middle $last $suffix";
}
 
my &surname-public = &longer-names.assuming**'Public'* );
 
&surname-public.'Joe''Q.''Jr.'); # OUTPUT: «Name is Joe Q. Public Jr.␤» 

Named parameters can be assumed as well:

sub foo { say "$^a $^b $:foo $:bar" }
&foo.assuming(13:42foo)(24:72bar); # OUTPUT: «13 24 42 72␤» 

And you can use .assuming on all types of Callables, including Methods and Blocks:

# We use a Whatever star for the invocant: 
my &comber = Str.^lookup('comb').assuming: *, /\w+/;
say comber 'Perl is awesome! Python is great! And PHP is OK too';
# OUTPUT: «(Perl Python PHP)␤» 
 
my &learner = {
    "It took me $:months months to learn $^lang"
}.assuming: 'Perl 6';
say learner :6months;  # OUTPUT: «It took me 6 months to learn Perl 6␤» 

Operators

infix:<∘>

The function composition operator infix:<∘> or infix:<o> combines two functions, so that the left function is called with the return value of the right function. If the .count of the left function is greater than 1, the return value of the right function will be slipped into the left function.

Both .count and .arity of the RHS will be maintained.

sub f($p){ say 'f'$p / 2 }
sub g($p){ say 'g'$p * 2 }
 
my &composed = &f  &g;
say composed 2# OUTPUT: «g␤f␤2␤» 
# equivalent to: 
say 2.&g.&f;
# or to: 
say f g 2;
sub f($a$b$c{ [~$c$b$a }
sub g($str){ $str.comb }
my &composed = &f  &g;
say composed 'abc'# OUTPUT: «cba␤» 
# equivalent to: 
say f |g 'abc';

Type Graph

Type relations for Callable
perl6-type-graph Callable Callable Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Code Code Code->Callable Code->Any ForeignCode ForeignCode ForeignCode->Callable ForeignCode->Any WhateverCode WhateverCode WhateverCode->Code Block Block Block->Code Routine Routine Routine->Block Macro Macro Macro->Routine Sub Sub Sub->Routine Method Method Method->Routine Submethod Submethod Submethod->Routine Regex Regex Regex->Method

Stand-alone image: vector